NCERT- Class 6th History Notes

NCERT Notes Class 6th History NCERT Notes Class 6th History

Chapter: 1. What, Where, How & When?

1. Women and men first began to grow crops such as wheat & barley about 8000 years ago.

  1. The places where rice was first grown are to the north of Vindhyas.

3. About 4700 years ago some of the earliest cities flourished on the banks of river Indus & its tributaries.

4. The south of the Ganga was known as Magadha.

5.Archaeologists-: Those who study about the past are known as Archaeologists. They study the remains of buildings made of stone & brick, paintings & sculptures. They also find tools, weapons, pots, pans, manuscripts, inscriptions etc.

Chapters: 2. On the Trial of the Earliest people

1. The hunters-gatherers travel from place to place because:

1.In search of food.

2. To follow the movements of the animals.

3. Move from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.

4.In search of water.

5. To meet their friends & relatives.

2.Factory sites-: Place where the stone was found & where people made tools are known as factory sites.

3.Two different kinds of techniques used for making stone tools were-:

1.Stone to stone.

2.Pressure flaking.

4. Hunters-gatherers used fire-:

1. To cool food.

2. To keep them warm.

3. To scare away wild animals.

4. To use as the source of light.

Bhimbetka: Madhya Pradesh

Hunsgi: Karnataka

Kurnool: Andhra Pradesh

Paleolithic age: Old stone age

Neolithic age: New stone age

Mesolithic age: Middle stone age.

Chapters:3.From Gathering to Growing Food

1. The first animal to be tamed was the wild ancestor of the dog.

2.Domestication-: It is the name given to the process by which people grow plants & look after animals.

~It was a gradual process that took place in about 12000 years ago.

~The earliest plant to be domesticated were wheat & barley.

~Earliest domesticated animals were sheep & goat.

Chapters:4.In the earliest Cities

1.Harappa-: Present day Pakistan.

Harappa-: It was the oldest cities in the subcontinent was first discovered.

~These cities developed about 4700 years ago.

2.Mohenjo Daro-: Present day Pakistan.

3.Scribes: People who known how to write, who helped to prepare the seals.

4.Cotton-: Was probably grown at Mehrgarh about 4700 years ago.

5.Specialist-: It was a person who was trained to do only one kind of work.

6.Raw materials: These are substances that are either found naturally or produced by farmers or herders.

Chapters:5.What Books & Burials tells Us

1. There are four Vedas-:

1.Rigveda 2.Samveda 3.Yajurveda


2. The oldest Veda is the Rigveda composed about 3500 years ago.

3. Hymn called sukta or well-said.

4. Three God's are especially important-:

Agni: The god of fire.

Indra: A warrior god.

Soma: A plant from which a special drink was prepared.

The Rigveda is in old or Vedic-Sanskrit.

~The Rigveda was recited & heard rather than read.

Chapter:6 Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic

1. Priests performed the rituals including the sprinkling of sacred water on the king.

2. The rajas who performed big sacrifices were recognized as being rajas of janapadas.

3.Purana Qila-: Delhi

Hastinapur-: Near Meerut

4. Some Janapadas became more important than others and were known as mahajanapadas.

5.Two major changes in agriculture were-:

1.Growing use of Iron Ploughshare.

2. People began transplanting paddy.

6.Use of rivers were-:


2.Water supplies.

3. Making of land fertile.

7. Magadha had two powerful rulers-:



Rajgriha: Present day Rajgir(Bihar)

Patliputra: Present day Patna(Bihar) was capital of Magadha.

Vajji: Its capital at Vaishali(Bihar)

8. Rajas of Mahajanapadas built forts for:

1. To protect themselves from attacks.

2. To show how rich they are.

3. To show their power.

Chapter-:7 New Questions And Ideas

1. Sidharta also was known as Gautama.

~Sidharta was the founder of Buddhism.

~He was born about 2500.

~Gautma belonged to a Gana known as the Sakya Gana.

~He was a Kshatriyas.

~He left home in search of knowledge.

2. The Buddha attained enlightenment under a Peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar.

3. Buddha taught for the first time at Sarnath near Varanasi.

4. He passed away at Kusinara.

5.Main teachings of the Buddha's-:

1. He taught that life is full of sufferings & unhappiness.

2 He taught that this could be removed by the following moderation in everything.

3. He also taught people to be kind & to respect the lives of others, including animals.

4. He believed that the Karma has the effect both in this life & the next.

5. Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people Prakrit.

6.Upanishads-: Literally means approaching and sitting near.

7.The questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer were-:

1. To know about life after death.

2. To know why sacrifices are performed.

3. There was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death.

4. They believed that both the atman and the Brahma were one.

8. The most Upanishad thinkers were men especially Brahmans & Rajas.

9.Founder of Jainism-: Vardhamana Mahavira (Most famous thinker)

~He was a Kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis.

~At age of thirty, he left home & went to live in a forest.

8.Main teachings of Mahavira-:

1. Men & women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.

2. They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa.

3. Ordinary people could understand the teachings so, he used Prakrit.

4. He taught that they should be honest & were specially asked not to steal.

9.Jaina-: The word Jaina comes from the term Jina meaning conqueror.

10.The Sangha-: An association of those who left their homes.

~Sangha was written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.

~Those who joined the Sangha include-: Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Courtesans & Slaves.

11. Permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as Viharas.

Chapter: 8.Ashoka, The Emperor Who Gave Up War

1. Maurya Dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya.

2.One of the greatest ruler of Maurya dynasty was-: Ashoka

3. Chanakya or Kautilya ideas were written down in a book called the Arthashastra.

4. Maurya empire included cities such as-: Patliputra(Present day Patna) Taxila & Ujjain.

~ Patliputra was the capital.

~Taxila: It was a gateway to the northwest.

~Ujjain: It lay on the route from North to South.

5. Empires were different from Kingdoms as -:

1. Empires need more resources than Kingdoms because empires were larger than Kingdoms and need to be protected by big armies.

2. They also need a larger number of officials who collect taxes.

5. Megasthenes was an ambassador who was sent to the court of Chandragupta by the Greek ruler west of west Asia named Seleucus Nicator.

6. Ashoka was a unique ruler as-:

1. He was the first ruler who tried to take his message to the people through inscriptions.

2. His inscriptions were in Prakrit & were written in the Brahmi script.

7. Klinga is the ancient name of Coastal Orissa.

8.Ashoka’s dhamma means:

1. It didn't involve worship of a good or performance of a sacrifice.

2. He felt that just as a father tries to teach his children.

3. He was also inspired by the teachings of Buddha.

9.The problems that Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing dhamma were-:

1. People in the empire followed different religions and this sometimes leads to conflict.

2. Animals were sacrificed.

3. Slaves & servants were ill-treated.

4. There were quarrels in families and amongst neighbors.

10. Ashoka adopted the following means to spread the message of dhamma-:

1. He appointed officials known as Dhamma Mahamatta.

2. He got his message inscribed on rock & shelters.

3. He also introduced his officials to read his message to those who could not read it themselves.

4. Ashoka also sent a messenger to spread his ideas to Greece, Syria, Egypt & Srilanka.

Chapter: 9 Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

1.Iron tools and agriculture-:

The use of Iron began in the subcontinent around 8000 years ago. Includes axes & plough.

2.Other steps to increase production irrigation-:

Irrigation works that were built during this time included canals, wells, tanks & artificial tanks.

3. Who lived in the villages-:

In Tamil Nadu large landowners known as Vellar.

Ordinary ploughman was known as Uzhavar.

Landless laborers including slaves were known as Kadaisiyar an Adimai.

In the northern part, the village Headman was known as Gramabhojaka(Largest landowners).

Independent farmers were known as Grihapati(Small landowners).

4.Craft persons were-: Blacksmith, Potter, Carpenter & weavers.

5. Steps were taken to increase production were-:

1. Iron tools were developed for agriculture.

2. The system of transportation helped in increasing production.

3. Irrigation was developed as canals, wells, tanks & artificial lakes.

6. Gramabhojaka:

~The post was hereditary.
~Grama bhojaka was often the largest landowners.

~He had slaves &  hired workers to cultivate the land.

7.Functions of Gramabhojaka:

1. To collect taxes from the villages.

2. He functioned as a Judge.

3. Sometimes as a policeman.

8. Mathura was an important Religious center because of the second capital of the Kushanas.

9. Shrenis were associations of craftspersons.

Chapter-10.Traders, Kings, And Pilgrims

1. Traders-: People who bought things where they were made and sold them elsewhere.

2. South India was famous for gold, spices -especially black pepper and precious stones.

3. Pepper was known as black gold.

4. Sangam poems mentioned the Muvendar.

~Muvendar is a Tamil word means three families.

~Muvendar used for the head of three families the - Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas.

~Three chiefs had two center of power -> 1.Island -> 2.On the cost.

5.Two important cities were-:

1.Puhar or Kaveripattinam-Part of Cholas  2.Madurai-The Capital of Pandyas.

6. Satavahanas were powerful in Western India.

7. The most important ruler was Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.

~His mother - Gautami Balasri.

8. He and other Satavahana ruler were known as Lords of Dakshinapatha.

9. Raw silk has to be extracted from the cocoons of silkworms, spin into the thread and then woven into cloth.

10. Chinese rulers send gifts of silk to rulers in Iran and West Asia and from the knowledge of silk spread further west.

11. Some kings tried to control large portions of silk route because-:

1. They would benefit from taxes, tributes, and gifts that were brought by traders traveling along the route.

2. They Often protect the traders who passed through their Kingdoms from attacks by robbers.

11. The rulers who controlled the silk route were the Kushanas.

12.The two major centers of power were-:



13.  The Kushanas were amongst the earliest rulers of the subcontinent issue gold coins.

14. The most famous Kushan ruler was Kanisha.

15. He organized a Buddhist Council.

~A place were scholars meet and discuss important matters.

16.Ashvaghosha a poet who composed a biography of the Buddha-: The Buddhacharita.

17.A new form of Buddhism known as -: Mahayana Buddhism.

18. The worship of Budhisattvas became very popular and spread throughout central Asia, China and later to Korea and Japan.

19.The older form of Buddhism known as Theravada Buddhism.

20.Pilgrims-: They were men and women who undertake journeys to holy places in order to offer worship.

21.Chinese Buddhist Pilgrims who came to India were-:

1.Fa Xian     2.Xuan Zang.

~They came to visit places associated with the life of the Buddha as well as famous monasteries.

22.Bhakti-: It is generally understood as a person’s devotion to his or her chosen deity.

22.Main features of Bhakti-:

1.Anybody whether rich or poor belong to the so-called ‘high’ or ‘low ‘ castes man or woman could follow the path of the Bhakti.

2. It is the devotion of a person toward its deity.

3. Those who follow the system of Bhakti emphasized devotion and individual worship of a god or goddess.

23. The ordinary  people were attracted to Bhakti as-:

1. It is believed that if devote worship of his/her chosen deity with a pure heart the deity will appear in the form in which he or she may desire.

2. Any person could follow the path of Bhakti without discrimination.

Chapter-: 11 New Empires And Kingdoms

1.Famous ruler of the Gupta dynasty-: Samudragupta.

2.His court poet was-: Harishena.

3. Prashasti is a Sanskrit word meaning “in praise of”.

4.Samudragupta policies towards four different kinds of ruler were-:

1.The ruler of Aryavarta-: There were nine rulers who were made a part of his empire.

2. The ruler of Dakshinapatha-: There were twelve rulers.T hey surrendered to Samudragupta after being of him & Samudragupta allowed them to rule again.

3.Assam, Coastal Bengal, Nepal-: They brought tributes, followed his orders and attained his court.

4.The Kushanas and Sakas and rulers of Sri Lanka-: Who submitted to him and offered their daughters in marriage.


Mother: Kumara Devi, belonged to the Lichchhavis Gana.

Father: Chandragupta.

The first ruler of the Gupta dynasty to be adopted the grand title of-: Maharaja-adhiraj.

6. Harshavardhana ruled nearly 1400 years ago.

His court poet-: Banabhatta wrote his biography-: Harshacharita in Sanskrit.

7.The Pallavas-: Capital-Kanchipuram

The Chalukyas-: Capital-Aihole

8. The best known Chalukya ruler was Pulakeshin-2

~His court poet was Ravikirti.

9. Kings adopted a number of steps to win the support were-:

1. Some important administrative posts were now hereditary.

2. Sometimes one person held many offices.

2. Important men probably had a say in local administration.

10. Abhigyan Shakuntalam(Play)-: Written by Kalidasa in Sanskrit.

~It is the story of love between the king Dushyanta and a young woman named Shakuntala.

11.Sabha(local assembly)-: Was assembly of brahman landowners.

12.Ur-: Was a village assembly found in areas where the land were not brahmins.

13. The nagaram-: Was an organization or merchants.

14.Different changes in the army were-:

1. The soldiers were not paid regular salaries instead some of them received grants of land.

2. They collect revenue from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horse.

3. The army included elephants, chariots, cavalry and foot soldiers.

15.Three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana were-;



3.Xuan Zang.

Chapter.12: Buildings, Paintings, and Books

1.Iron pillar at Mehrauli-: Delhi.

~7.2m high and weight over 3 tonnes.

~Made about 1500 years ago.

2.Aryabhata-: Mathematician

& Astronomer.

~Wrote a book-: Aryabhata(Sanskrit)

3. Paper was invented in China about 1900 years ago by Cailum.

4.Puranas-: Literally means old.

~Contains stories about God and Goddess.

5.Valmiki-: Author of Sanskrit. (Ramayana)

6. Sanchi Stupa-: Is in Madhya Pradesh.

NCERT Notes Class 6th History(End)


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