NCERT- Geography Class 6th Notes

NCERT Class 6th Notes  Geography

NCERT Class 6th Notes  Geography

Chapter.1: The Earth In The Solar System


1. Planets do NOT have their own light.

2. Planets move around the sun in fixed paths.

3. Planets are limited.


1. Star have their own heat and light.

2. Star do not move they are fixed.

3. are countless or unlimited.

3.Solar System-:

1. The sun, eight planets, satellites, asteroids, and meteoroids form the solar system. We often call it a solar family with the sun as it's head.

4.Eight planets are-:

1.Mercury   2Venus .3.Earth 4.Mars 5.Jupiter .6.Saturn 7.Uranus.    8.Neptune.

5. The Earth is called a unique planet as-:

1. The Earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has air, water which are essential for our survival. The Earth has life-supporting gases such as oxygen, nitrogen.


The moon moves around the Earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth.

7.Galaxy: A Galaxy is a huge system of billions of stars and clouds of dust and gases. Millions of such galaxies from the Universe.

8. The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in the night sky are called Celestial Bodies.

9.Ursa Major-: Saptarishi(Group of seven stars)

10. The North Star indicates the north direction. It is also called Pole Star.

11. The eight planets of the solar system move around the sun in fixed paths These paths are called elongated. They are called Orbits.

12. Mercury is nearest to the sum. It takes about 88 days to complete one rotation.

13. Venus is considered as  “Earth's-twin” because it's size & shape are very similar to the earth.

Chapter.2: Globe: Latitudes and Longitudes

1. Globe is the true shape of the earth.

Globe is the true model of the earth.

2. An imaginary line running on the globe divides it into two equal parts is known as the equator.

3.Important parallels of Latitudes are-:

1.Tropic of cancer(23½°N)

2.Tropic of Capricorn (23½°S)

3.Arctic circle(66 ½°N)

4.Antarctic circle(66 ½°S).

4.The three heat zones of the earth are-:

1.Torrid zone.

2.Temperate zone.

3.Frigid zone.

5. Torrid zone receives the maximum heat because the midday sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all Latitudes in between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of Capricorn.

6. The British Royal Observatory is located at Greenwich.

7. In Indian, the longitudes of 82 ½°E(82 30E) is treated as the standard meridian.

8.ISO-: Indian Standard Time

  1. India's time is 5 hrs & 30 min ahead of GMT. (Greenwich mean time).

10. The earth has been divided into twenty-four time-zones of one hour each.

11. In Russia, there are Eleven standard times.

12. The parallels of latitudes & meridian of longitudes are called Grids.

Chapter.3: Motions of the Earth

  1.  Rotation and  Revolution:

1. Rotation is the movement on its axis.1. Movement of earth around the sun in the fixed path is called a revolution.
2. Earth takes 24hrs to complete one rotation. 2. The earth takes 365 days &  6 hours to complete one revolution.
3. It results in the formation day  & night. 3. It results in the formation of seasons.
4. It is the daily motion of the earth.    4. It is the yearly motion of the earth.

  1.  Leap year and  Normal year:
 Leap YearNormal Year
1. In a leap year, the month of  February is for 29 days.     

  1. In a normal year, the month of February is for 28 days.

2. In a leap year, there are 366 days. 2. In a normal year, there are 365 days.

  1. Summer solstice and  Winter solstice:
Summer solsticeWinter solstice
1. It takes place on 21st June in the northern hemisphere.   1. It takes place on 22nd Dec in the southern hemisphere.
2. The northern hemisphere receives more heat & light.       2. The southern receives less heat & light.
3.. Days are longer than nights.       3. Nights are longer than days.
4.Summer in the northern hemisphere. 4.Winter in the southern hemisphere.

4.Equinox: When there is equal days & nights is known as equinox.

5. There are four seasons-:

1.Winter   2.Spring 3.Summer  4.Autumn

6.On 21st March and 23rd. September there are equal days and nights.

Chapter.4: Maps

1. Maps are important than a globe because-:

1. A map provides us with detail information about a place.

2. A map is easy to carry.

3 When we want to study a place then it is helpful.

2.Physical Maps-: Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc.are called physical maps.

3.Political Maps-: Maps showing cities, towns & country boundaries are called political maps.

4.Thematic Maps-: Some maps focus on special information such as roads, forest, industries etc. are known as thematic maps.

5. There are three compounds of maps-:

1.Distance    2.Directions   3.Symbols.

6.Scale-: It is the ratio between the actual distance shown on the ground and a distance shown on the map.

7. There are four major directions-:

1.North    2.South 3.East.   4.West

These are called cardinal points.

8. Compass-: It is an instrument used to find out the main directions. (North).

9. Sketch-: It is a drawing mainly based on memory and observation and not to scale

10.Plan-: A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.

11. The symbols are useful in reading maps as-:

1. Symbols give a lot of information in a limited space.

2. Symbols can be drawn easily and are simpler to read & understand.

3. We can collect information from maps with the help of symbols.

4. Symbols have a universal language that can be understood by all.

Chapter.5: Major Domains Of The Earth

1. The Biosphere is important for living organisms. It consists of land and air which supports the living organisms.

2. The Northern Hemisphere is called the land Hemisphere because the greater part of landmass lies in the northern hemisphere.

NCERT Class 6th Notes  Geography - continue

Chapter.6: Major Landforms Of the Earth

1. Three main Landforms of the Earth are:

1.Mountains.   2.Plateaus.      3.Plains.

2. The Aravali range in India is one of the Oldest Fold Mountain range in the world.

3.Types of mountains-:

1. Fold mountain.    2. Block mountain 3.Volcanic mountain.

4. The river plains are thickly populated because-:

1. Plains are very fertile.

2. Construction of the transport network is easy.

3. Basic structures for settlement is easily available.

4. Food grains to feed the population is easily available.

5.Mountains useful to man as-:

1. They protect from cold waves.

2. Helps in rainfall.

3. They are the major source of rivers.


1. A plateau is an elevated flat land.

The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaux.

The Tibet plateau is the highest Plateau in the world. With the height of 4000 to 6000 meters.

Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits.

7.Formation of Plains-:

1. Most of the Plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.

2. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them.

3. They carry forward the eroded material.

4. Then they deposit their land consisting of stones, sand & silt along their courses and in their valleys.

By this plains are formed.

Chapter.7 Our Country-India

1. India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the Himalayas.The Arabian Sea in the west.The Bay of Bengal in the east.And the Indian ocean in the south.

2. India has an area about 3.28 millions square km

3. Himalaya is the abode(home) of snow.

4. The peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.

Chapter.8:India: Climate,Vegetation & Wildlife

1.Wheather-: It is about day to day change in the atmosphere.

2.The four major seasons in India are-:

1.Cold weather season (winter)

~December to February

2.Hot weather season (summer)

~March to May

3.Southwest monsoon(Rainy)

~June to September

4.Season of retreating monsoon(Autumn) ~October to March

5.Climate-: It is the average weather condition which has been measured over many years.

The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type

6. Due to India's location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.

7.Factors affecting the climate of a place are-:

1.Location.  2.Altitude 3.Distance from the sea.     4.Relief.

8.Mawsynram-: In Meghalaya receives the world's highest rainfall.

9. Natural Vegetation of India  can be divided into fine types-:

1.Tropical rainforest.

2.Tropical deciduous forest.

3.Thorny bushes.

4.Mountain Vegetation.

5.Mangrove forest.

10.Tropical rainforests:

1. Also known as the evergreen forest.

2. These forests occur in the area which receives heavy rainfall.

3. Trees shed their leaves at different times of the year.

4. Important trees are: Mahogany, ebony, and rosewood

11.Tropical Deciduous forest-:

1. These forests are also called monsoon forest.

2. They have less dense.

3. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year.

4.Important trees are-: Sal, teak, peepal, neem, and Shisham.

12.Thorny bushes-:

1. Found in dry areas.

2. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water.

3.Important trees are-: Cactus, Kair, babool, Keekar etc.

13.Mountain vegetation-:

1. These forests are found in mountains.

2. Trees are conical in shape

3. These trees are called coniferous trees.

4.Important trees are-: Chir, Pine, and Deodar.

14.Mangrove Forests-:

1. These forests can survive in saline water.

2. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal & in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

3. Sundri is a well-known species of trees in mangrove forests.

15. Forests are necessary because-:

1. Plants release oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide.

2. They control soil erosion.

3. Forests provide us with timber for furniture, firewood, fodder, medicinal plants, honey, gum etc.

4. Forests are the natural habitat of wildlife.

NCERT Class 6th Notes  Geography (End)


NCERT Class 6th Notes  Geography

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