NCERT Notes Class 7th History

NCERT Class 7th History Solutions



  Chapter.1: Tracing  Changes Through A Thousand Years





NCERT Class 7th History Notes

1.Cartographer: A person who makes the map.

2.Hindustan-:

Today we understand it as The modern nation-state. During the thirteenth century, it included the areas of Punjab, Haryana and the lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. In the early sixteenth century Babar used it to describe the geographically, the fauna and the culture of inheritance of the subcontinent.

3.Foreigner in the Past-:

Foreigner was any stranger who, say appeared in a given village, someone who was not a part of that society or culture.

A city dweller, therefore, might have regarded a forest dweller as a foreigner.

4.Some of the technological changes associated between 700 to 1750 were-:

1.The Persian wheel in irrigation.

2.The spinning wheel in weaving.

3.Firearms in combat.

5. New foods and beverages arrived the subcontinent-:

~Potatoes, corn, chilies, tea and coffee.

6.Rajputs-: A name derived Rajaputra the son of a ruler.

7.Archive-: A place where documents and manuscripts are stored.

8.Habitat-: Refers to the environment of a region and the social and economic lifestyle of its resident.

9.Patron: An influential wealthy individual who supports another person-an artist, a craftsman, a learned man or a noble.

10.Jatis-:

1. Jatis formed their own rules and regulations.

2. These regulations were enforced by the jati Panchayat.

3. But jatis have to follow the rules of their villages.

4. Several villages were governed by a chieftain.

11.New religions development during this period were-:

Merchants and migrants first brought the teachings of the Holy Quran and the Bible.

Muslims regard the Quran as their holy book and accept the sovereignty of the one god Allah.

Many rulers were patrons of Islam and the ulama-learned theologians and jurists.

Like Hinduism, Islam was interpreted in a variety of ways by its followers.

Chapter.2: New Kings And Kingdoms






1. Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka (Deccan).

2.Maha-mandaleshvara-> the great Lord of circle or region.

Maharaja-adhiraj -> Great King (Overlord of kings)

Tribhuvan -> chakravartin ->Lord of three worlds.

3. Kalhama wrote about the kings of Kashmir in Sanskrit.

4.Sultan: An Arabic term meaning ruler.

5.The parties involved in the tripartite were-:

1.Gurjara- Pratihara.

2.Rashtrakuta

3.Palas.

6. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni(Afghanistan)-: He ruled from 991 to 1030.

He extended control over parts of central Asia, Iran and the north-western part of the subcontinent.

He raided over the wealthy temple of Somnath(Gujarat)

7.Al-Biruni wrote-: Kitab-al-Hind.

8. Chahamanas was later known as the Chauhans who ruled over the region around Delhi & Ajmer.

9.Rulers and their ruled areas-:

1.Chalukyas-: Gujarat

2.Gahadavalas-: Western Uttar Pradesh

3.Gurjara Pratihara-: Gujarat and Rajasthan

4.Palas-: Bengal

5.Rashtrakuta-: Western Deccan

6.Cholas-: Tamil Nadu

10.Ur: Settlements of peasants.

Nadu: Groups of villages.

Muvendavelan: Rich landowners.

Sabha: An assembly

Nagarams: Associations of traders

11. Qualifications required to become a member of Sabha were:

1.Owner of land from which land revenue is collected.

2. They should have their own homes.

3.Age between 35 to 70.

4.Knowledge of Vedas.

12. Irrigation works developed in the Tamil region were:

1. Canals were constructed.

2. Huge tanks were constructed to collect rainwater.

3. Wells were dug.

13.The activities associated with Chola temples were-:

1. These were centers of craft production.

2. Temples were endowed with land by rulers as well as by others.

3. They were the hub of economic, social and cultural life.

Chapter.3: The Delhi Sultans






1. Tomara Rajputs first established their capital at Delhi.

2. Chauhans also referred to be as Chahamanas. Ruled at Delhi & Ajmer.

3. Persian was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans

4. Twarikh was written in Persian language.->

Some details about the authors:

1. The authors of tawarikh lived in cities and hardly ever in villages.

2. They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope rich rewards.

3. These authors admired rulers on the need to preserve an ideal social order based on birthright and gender distinctions.

4.Razia sultana-:( 1236-1240)

Daughter of Sultan Iltutmish.

She was the first women sultan of Delhi.

5.Hinterland-: The land adjacent to a city or port that supply it with goods and services.

6.Garrison town-: A fortified settlement with soldiers.

7. In two ways the expansion of Delhi sultanate was held:

1.Along the internal frontier of the sultanate aimed at consolidation of the garrison town.

2. The second expansion occurred along the eternal frontier of the sultanate.

8.Iqta- land.

Iqtadar or Muqti: Landholder.

9.Duties of Muqtis-:

1. To lead military campaigns.

2. To maintain law and order in their iqtas.

3. They collect the revenues of their assignments as salary.

10.Control over Muqtis-:

1. Their office was not inheritable.

2. Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue by the muqtis.

3. Care was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes prescribed by the state.

11. There were three types of taxes-

1.On cultivation called Kharaj.

2.On cattle.

3.On houses.

12.Ibn-Battuta travel to India from Morocco(Africa)

Chapter.4: The Mughal Empire






1. Red Fort in Delhi was the residence of the Mughal Empire.

Babar was the first Mughal-emperor (1526-1530)

2.1526 Babar defeated the sultan of Delhi: Ibrahim Lodi.

Babar defeated Rana Sangha at Khanwa in 1527.

3.Jahangir’s real name was Salim.

Shah Jahan: Real name was Prince Khurram.

4.Mansab: A position of rank.

5. Mansab was a grading system used by the Mughal to fix-:

1.Rank.

2.Salary.

3.Military responsibilities.

6.The relationship between mansabdar and jagirs-:

1. Mansabdar received their salaries as revenue assignment called jagirs.

2. Most mansabdars did not actually reside in or administer their jagirs.

3. In Akbar’s reign, these jagirs were carefully assessed so that their revenue was roughly equal to the salary of the mansabdar.

7.The central provinces under the control of the Mughal were-:

Ajmer and Delhi.

8.The role of zamindars in Mughal administration-:

1. They have to pay taxes to increase the revenue for the Mughals.

2. In some areas, zamindars exercised a great deal of power.

3. Sometimes zamindars and peasants use to rebel against Mughal authority.

9.Today Mal-: Akbar's revenue minister.

10.Akbar Nama & Ain-i-Akbari

~Written by Abdul Fazal.

11.Nur Jahan-: Real name Mehrunnisa.

~In 1611 married with Jahangir

12.Abdul Fazal: Helped Akbar in framing a vision of governance around his idea of such-i-kul(means universal).

Chapter.5: Rulers And Buildings






1.Qutub Minar: It is five stories high.

The first floor was constructed by Qutubuddin Aybak(1199) and the rest by Iltutmish around 1229.

2.Mentions: Havelis.

3.Superstructure: The part if a building above the ground floor.

4.Trabeate: It is a style of architecture in which roofs, doors, and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns.

5.Mahamandapa-:( Main hall) where dancers were performed.

6.Garbhagriha: The place where the image of the chief deity was kept in the main shrine.

7.Sikhara: It is a tower-like structure on the top of the temple.

2.Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish: Won universal respect for constructing a larger reservoir just outside Delhi-I-Khulna.It was called the Hauj-i-Sultan or Kings reservoir.

9. Kings generally used to build temples :

1. To demonstrate their devotion to god.

2. To show their power.

3. To show their wealth.



10.Sultan Muhammad of Ghazni: Destroyed Somnath temple.

11.Pietra dura: Coloured hard stones placed in depressions covered into marble or sandstones creating beautiful ornaments patterns.

Mughal architecture first visible in Humayun's’ tomb.

~The tomb was placed in the center of huge formal Chahar Bagh and built in the tradition known as eight paradises or hasht bihisht.



Red Fort and Taj Mahal were constructed by Shah Jahan.

Taj Mahal at Agra completed in 1643.

12. The elements of a Mughal Chahar Bagh garden are:

1. The Chahar Bagh gardens were made in rectangular enclosed walls and were divided into four equal parts.

2. These gardens were called Chahar bagh because of their symmetrical divisions into quarters.

NCERT Class 7th History Notes Continue

Chapter.6: Towns, Traders, And Craftspersons






1.The Rajarajeshwara temple built by King Rajaraja Chola.

2.Mandapas: Places in the temples where King hold courts and issue orders to their subordinates.

3.Importance of temples-:

1. Temple towns represent a very important pattern of urbanization.

2. Temple was often central to the economy and society.

3. Rulers built temples to demonstrate their devotion to be

4.Billaswamin: Madhya Pradesh

Somnath: Gujarat

Kanchipuram: Tamil Nadu

Tirupati: Andhra Pradesh

Ajmer (Rajasthan) was the capital of Chauhan kings.

Sufi saint: Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti.

Pushkar Lake: Near Ajmer.

Kabul & Qandhar were linked to the silk route.

5. Hampi (Karnataka) was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Located in the Krishna-Tungabhadra basin.

The Dutch established a settlement at Masulipatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

6. Merchants preferred to travel in Caravans.

Surat was the important trading port on the Arabian Sea.

7.Emporium: A place where goods from diverse production centers are bought and sold.

8. People from distant land visit Surat because- :

1. It was the major port of India.

2. It was the major trading center for gold and clothes.

3. It was also the gateway for trade in India.

4. It was also called the gateway to Mecca.

9.Black towns in Madaras:

1. In these towns, merchants and artisans used to live.

2.These towns established by the European companies.

10.Vasco-da- Gama-> Portuguese sailor.

Discovered sea route to India in 1498→ Calicut(Kerala)

Christopher Columbus: An Italian.

Discovered America In 1492.

Chapter.7: Tribes, Nomads, And Settled Communities






1. Many societies in the subcontinent did not follow the social rulers and rituals prescribed by the brahmans nor were they divided into numerous unequal classes, such societies were often called Tribes.

2.Tribes:

1. They usually live in forests, hills, deserts, and places difficult to reach.

2. They obtained their livelihood from agriculture.

3. Some were hunter-gatherers or herders.

4. They had rich customs and oral traditions.

3.Clan: A clan is a group of families.

4. Nomads and mobile people lived the following ways:

1. Nomadic pastoralists moved over long distances with their animals.

2. They lived on milk and other pastoral products.

3. They exchanged wool, ghee with settled agriculturists for grain, clothes, utensils and other products.

5. The Banjaras were important for the economy as :

1. They were the most important trader's nomads.

2. They were used to transport grain to the city markets.

3. They also transported food grain for the Mughal’s army during military campaigns.

6. The Caravans of Banjaras were called Tanda.

Tanda consists of many families.

7.The Gonds:

1. Lived in a vast forest region called God wants.

2. They practiced shifting cultivation.

3. Large gond tribes divided into many small clans.

4. The Akbarnama mentions that  Graha Katanga has 70,000 villages.

5. Each clan had its own raja or rai.

8.The administrative system of Ghond’s kingdoms:

1. The kingdom was divided into garhs.

2. Each garh was controlled by a particular gond clan.

3. This was further divided into units of 84 villages called chaurasi.

4. The chaurasi was subdivided into barhots(made of 12 villages).

9.The Ahoms :

  1. Migrated to the Brahmaputra valley from present-day Myanmar.

2. Ahoms built a large state and for this they used firearms.

3. The state depended upon forced laborers.

4. The laborers that forced to do work for the state were called paiks.

5. The Ahom society was divided into clans or khels.

6. A Khel often controlled several villages.

7. Ahoms worshipped their own Bible Gods.

8. Ahom society was very sophisticated.

Chapter.8: Devotional Paths To The  Divine






1.Nayarans: Saints devoted to Shiva.

Alvars:  Saint devoted to Vishnu

Hagiography: Writing of Saint's life.

2. Shankara was an advocate of Advaita.

Ramanunja was an advocate of Bhakti.

Basuaan, Akkamahadevi, and Allama Prabhu were advocates of Virashaivism.

3.Some of the famous Sufi Saints(Muslim Mystics)

Khawaja Muinuddin Chisti: Ajmer

Qutubudin Bakhtiar Kaki: Delhi

Baba Farid: Punjab

Khawaja Nizamuddin Auliya: Delhi

Bandanawaz Gisudaraj: Gullberg.

4.Kabir

1. His teachings were based on a complete indeed vehement, rejection of the major religious traditions.

2. His teachings openly ridiculed all forms of external worship of both Brahmanical Hinduism and Islam.

3. He teachings were in easy language which could be understood by ordinary people easily.

4. Kabir believed in a formless Supreme God and preached that the only path to salvation was through Bhakti or devotion.

5.Nathpanthis, Siddhas, and Yogis:

1. They believed that the path to salvation is in meditation on the formless ultimate reality and the realization of oneness with it.

2. They advocate intense training of the mind and body through practices like yoga asanas.

6.Baba Guru Nanak(1469-1593)

1. Born at Talwandi(Nankana in Pakistan)

2. He established a center at  Kartarpur (Dera Baba Nanak on the river Ravi)

3. His followers eat together in a common kitchen Langer.

4. Baba Guru Nanak appointed his successor Lehna( Known as Guru Angad)

5. Guru Angad compiled the composition of Baba Nanak-Gurmukhi.

7.Guru Gobind Singh:

Compiled Guru Granth Sahib.

A holy scripture of the Sikhs.

Ramdaspur(Amritsar)

Harmandar Sahib(Golden Temple)

Guru Gobind Singh started Khalsa institution.

8.Teachings of Baba Guru Nanak-:

1. He emphasized the importance of the worship of one god.

2. He insisted that caste, Creed or gender-irrelevant for attaining liberation.

3. He himself used the term nam,dan, and isnan for the essence of the essence of his teachings, welfare of others and purity of conduct.

4. His teachings are now remembered as nam-japna,kirt-karna, and and-chhakna.

9.The belief and practices of the Sufis:

1. The Sufis often rejected the elaborate rituals & codes of behavior demanded by Muslim religious scholars.

2. They sought union with God much of a lower seeks his beloved with a disregard for the world.

3. The Sufis too composed poems expressing their feelings and a rich literature in prose including anecdotes and fables developed around them.

Chapter.9: The Making Of Regional Culture






1.Manipravalam: Literally means “diamonds and corals” referring to two languages.

1.Sanskrit.        2.The regional language Malayalam.

Book had written in this language was: Lilatilakam.

2. The major patron of kathak were:

Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh.

3. The conquerors tried to control the temple of Jagannath at Puri because they felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people.

4. The important architectural features of the temples of Bengal are:

1. The temples began to copy the double-roofed or four-shaped structure of the thatched huts.

2. They have four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line or a point.

3. Temples were usually built on a square platform.

4. Temples were built in Bengal because:

Temples often built by individuals or groups who were becoming powerful too:

1. Demonstrate their power.

2. Proclaim their piety.

  1. Proclaimed their status, through the construction of temples.I

Chapter.10: Eighteenth- Century Political Formation






1.1707: Aurangzeb died.

1761: Third battle of Panipat.

2.Subadar: Governance

Diwani: Offices of revenue

Faujdari: Military administration.

3. Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded North-India five times 1748 to 1761.

4. The states of the 18th century can be divided into three groups:

1.States that were old Mughal provinces like Awadh, Bengal, and Hyderabad.

2.States that had enjoyed considerable Independence under the Mughal as Watan jagirs.

3. The last group included states under the control of Marathas, Sikhs and other like Jats.

5.Hyderabad: Founder was Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah(1724-1748).

~Asaf Jah skilled soldiers and administrators from north-India.

~He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs.

6.Awadh: Founder was Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan. (1722).

Offices held by Sa’adat Khan:

  1. Subadari.

2. Diwani.

3. Faujdari



7.Bengal: Murshid Quli Khan was appointed as the neib deputy to the governor of the province.

8. Sawai Jai Singh of Amber was governor of Malwa.

9. Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth Guru of the Sikhs.

10.poona became the capital of the Marathas in the eighteenth century.

11. The Nawabs of Awadh & Bengal tried to do away with the jagirdari system because it was highly suspicious. So, these states appointed his loyal servants and reduced the size of jagirs, they also reduced the number of offices holders to control their authority for their revenue was collected in a case.

12. The Sikhs were organized in the 18th century following ways:

Under the number of able leaders in the 18th century, the Sikhs organized themselves into a number of bands called Jathas, and later on misls. These combined force were known as the grand army(Dal Khalsa). A system called rakhi was introduced.

13. Marathas wanted to expand their areas beyond the Deccan because this expansion brought enormous resources. By the expansion, new trade routes emerged within areas controlled by the Marathas.

14.Policies adopted by the Asaf Jah:

1. As the Mughal governor of the Deccan province, Asaf Jah had already had control over it political and financial administration.

2.Taking subsequent advantages of the turmoil in the Deccan and the competition amongst the court nobility he gathered the actual rulers of that regions.

3. He appointed mansabdars and granted jagirs.

NCERT Class 7th History Notes (End)


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NCERT Class 7th History Notes

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