NCERT Notes For Class 8th Civics

NCERT Class 8th Civics Notes




NCERT Class 8th Civics Notes


Chapter.1: The Indian Constitution






1. The Constitution serves several purposes such as :

1. It lays out certain ideas that form the basis of the kind of country need.

2. It defines the nature of a country’s political system.

3. It ensures that a dominant group does not use its power against other less powerful people or groups.

4. We need a constitution to save us from over selves.

2. The key features of the Indian constitution are:

1.Federalism.

2.Parliamentary form of government.

3.Separation of power.

4.Fundamental rights

5.Secularism.

1.Federalism: This refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country.

National/Central level of govt.in India       -------->

State level government.--------->

Local level government (Panchayati Raj)

2.Parliamentary form of government: This refers that the people of India have a. direct roles in electing their representatives.

  • Also, every citizen of the country irrespective of his/her social background can also contest in elections.

3.Separation of powers:

There are three organs of the state:

The Legislature

The Executive

The Judiciary

~The legislature refers to our elected representatives.

~The executive is a small group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the government.

~The Judiciary refers to the system of courts in the country.

4.Fundamental rights:

1.Right to equality: All persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be protected by the laws of the country.

2.Right to freedom: This includes the right to freedom of speech and expressions, the right to form associations, the right to move freely and reside in any part of the country and the right to practice any profession, occupation or business.

3.Right against exploitation: The Constitution prohibits human trafficking, forced labor, and employment of children under 14 years of age.

5.Right to freedom of religion: Religious freedom is provided to all citizens. Each person has the right to practice, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.

6.Right to constitutional remedies:

This allows citizens to move the court if any believe that any of their fundamental rights have been violated by the state.

5.Secularism: A secular state is one in which the state does not promote officially any one religion, as per the state religion.

3.Constitution: The Constitution of a country is a body of fundamental or basic laws according to which a country is governed.

Dr.B.R. Ambedkar is known as the father of Indian constitution.

~Right to constitutional remedies is the hurt and soul of Indian constitution.

~Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the president of the constitutional assembly.

Chapter.2: Understanding Secularism






1. The most important aspect of secularism is a separation of religion from the state.

2. The three objectives of Indian Secularism are:

1. One religious community does not dominant other.

2. Some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.

3. The state does not force any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.

3. It is important to separate religion from the state:

1. This is important for a country to function democratically.

2. We need to protect the freedom of individuals to exist in their religion.

Chapter.3: Why Do We Need A Parliament


1.Parliament :

President---------Loksabha----------Rajya Sabha

2.Role of Parliament:

1. To select the national government.

2. To control, guide and inform the government.

3.Lawmaking.

3.Formation of Indian National Congress:1885

4.
LoksabhaRajya sabha
1. It is the lower house of parliament.1. It is the upper house of the parliament.
2. Its total strength should not exceed .550+2=552.2. Its total strength should not exceed 238+12=250.
3. It has a fixed term of five years and can be dissolved the president.3.It has no fixed term and can't be dissolved by the president.
4. It is a temporary house.4. It is a permanent house.
5. It is presided by the speaker.5. It is presided by the vice-president.


Chapter.4: Understanding Laws






1.Rule of law: It means that law cannot discriminate between persons on the basis of the religion, caste or gender. All laws apply equally to all citizens of the country and no one can be above the law.

  • British colonialist introduced the rule of law in India.

2.Sedition act of 1870: According to this act any person protesting or criticising the British government could be arrested without trial in court.

3.Ages of marriage in India:

For girls: 18 years.

For boys: 21 years.

4.Domestic violence: It refers to the injury or harm or threat of injury caused by an adult male, usually the husband, against his wife. An injury may be caused by physically beating upon the women or by emotionally abusing her. Abuse of the women can also include verbal, sexual & economic abuse.

5.The features of women protection law 2006:

1. It recognizes the right of women to live in a shared household.

2. The women can get protection against any further violence.

3. Women can get monetary relief to meet their expenses including medical costs.

Chapter.5: Judiciary






1. The structure of courts in India  ---->National level(Supreme Court)

----> State level (High Court)

----> Local court( District Court)

~Supreme court is located at New Delhi.

2.Work of Judiciary:

1.Dispute resolution.

2.Judicial review.

3. Upholding the law and enforcing fundamental laws.

  • Dispute resolution: The judicial system provides a mechanism for resolving disputes between citizens, between citizens & the government, between two state governments & between the central & state government.

  • Judicial review: As the final interpreter of the Constitution the Judiciary also has the power to strike down particular laws passed by the parliament if it believes that there a violation of the basic structure of the constitution.

4.1. There are 24 high courts in India.

2. High courts were first established in the three presidencies -1862 Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.

3. Delhi high court comes up in 1966.

4.PIL: Public Interest Litigation

NCERT Class 8th Civics Notes Continue

Chapter.6: Understanding Our Criminal Justice System






1. Four key players in the criminal justice system are :

1.Police.

2.Public prosecutor

3.Defense lawyer

4.Judge.

2.Main provisions of article 22 of the Indian constitution and criminal law guarantee to every arrested person the following fundamental rights:

1.The right to be informed at the time of arrest of the offense for which the person is being arrested

2.The right to be presented before a magistrate within 24hrs of arrest.

3.The right not to be ill-treated or tortured during or in custody.

4. Confessions made in police custody cannot be used as evidence against the accused.

5. A boy under 15 years of age and women cannot be called to the police station only for questioning.

3.Role of the police in  investigating a crime:

1. One important function of the police is to investigate any complaint about the commision of a crime.

2. An investigation includes recording statements of witness and collecting different kinds of evidence. On the basis of the investigation, the police are required to form an opinion.

4.Role of the Public Prosecutor:

1. The prosecutor must conduct the prosecution on behalf of the state.

2. As an officer of the court, it is his/her duty to act impartially and to present the full material facts, witnesses and evidence before the court to enable the court to decide the case.

5.Role of the Judge:

1. The judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the prosecution and the defense.

2. The judge decides whether the accused person is guilty or innocent on the behalf of the evidence presented and in accordance work the law.

3. If the accused is convicted, then the judge pronounces the sentence.

4. He may send the person to jail or impose a fine or both, depending on what the law prescribes.

6.Article 21:

1. Article 21 of the constitution guarantees the right to life states that a person's life or liberty can be taken only by following a reasonable and just legal procedure. A fair trial ensures that article 21 of the constitution is upheld.

Chapter.7: Understanding Marginalisation






1.Adivasis: Literally means original inhabitants. Adivasis are communities who lived and often continue to live in close association with forest.

~Around 8% of the total population in India is Adivasis.

~Major industrial centers in India are located in Adivasis areas such as Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro & Bhilai.

2.Effects of development on Adivasis:

1. They forced to leave their natural habitats.

2. Their land was occupied by the government & industries.

3. Most of the areas of Adivasis are covered by the dams and multiple purpose projects.

4. New forests law was imposed over them.

5. They were forced to give up their traditional practices and adopt some other economic practices.

3.Minorities: This term is most commonly used to refer to those communities who are numerically smaller in relation to the rest of the population.

4. The constitution safeguards to protect minority community are important because:

1. To protect minority communities against the possibility of being culturally dominated by the majority.

2. To protect them against any discrimination and disadvantages.

3.Important for protecting India’s cultural diversity and promoting equality as well justice.

Chapter.8: Confronting Marginalisation






1.Article: No citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

2. Article 17: Untouchability had been abolished.

3.C.K. Janu: An Adivasi activist.

Worked for the Adivasis to make them aware of their rights.

Chapter.9: Public Facilities






1. Different types of public facilities are:

1.Water

2.Healthcare centers.

3.Electricity.

4.Public transport

5.Schools and colleges.

6.Communication

7.Market.

8.Sanitation

9.Banking facilities

10.Drainage facilities.

2. The constitution of India recognized the right to water as being a part of the right to life under article 21.

3. The supply of water per person in an urban area in India should be about 135 liters per day, a standard by the Urban Water Commission.

4.Water Supply in Chennai:

1. Water supply in Chennai is marked by shortages.

2. Municipal supply meet only about half of the needs of the people of the city, on an average.

~There are areas which get water more regularly than others.

~There areas that are close to the shortage points gets more water whereas colonies further away receive less water.

~The burden of shortfalls in water supply fails mostly on the poor. The middle class, when faced with water shortages, are able to cope, through a variety of private means such as digging, borewells, buying water from tankers and using bottled water for drinking.

Chapter.10: Law and Social Justice






1.Right against Exploitation:

1. It says that no one can be forced to make for low wages or under bondages.

2. Also, no child below the age of 14 years should be employed to work in any factory or mines or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

2.Bhopal gas tragedy: 2 Dec 1984

~Due to the leaking of Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) from the union carbide (UC) factory.

~The victims of the tragedy had not got justice until today.

~The world's worst industrial tragedy took place in Bhopal, union carbide an American pesticides company.

~Most of those exposed to the poison gas come from poor, working-class families.

~These people or their dependents or legal successor have not got sufficient help as compensation.

3. The favorable conditions which attracted foreign companies to settle in India  are:

1.Availability of market.

2.Easy availability of cheap laborers ( both skilled & unskilled)

3.Suitable land.

4.Suitable government policies.

5. There are absolute peace and favorable working conditions.

6.Sufficient infrastructural facilities.

NCERT Class 8th Civics Notes (End)

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NCERT Class 8th Civics Notes

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