NCERT Notes For Class 8th Geography

NCERT Class 8th Geography notes

NCERT Class 8th Geography notes

Chapter.1: Resources

1.Resource: Anything that can be used to satisfy a need is a resource.

~Utility or usability makes an object or substance a resource.

~Time and technology are two important factors that can change substance into a resource.

2. Resources are generally classified into three types:

1.Natural.        2. Human-made.


1.Natural resources: Resources that are drawn from nature and used without much modification are called natural resources.

Examples: Air we breathe, water in our rivers and lakes, soil, mineral etc.

3. Natural resources are classified into different group s:

1.Level of development:

1.Actual.           2.Potential

2. Based on origin:

1.Abiotic.          2.Biotic

4.Actual resources: The resources whose quantity at present is known are called actual resources.

5.Potential resources: Those resources whose entire quantity is not being used at present are called potential resources.

Example: Uranium in Ladakh.

6.Renewable resources: Those resources which get renewed or replenished quickly are called renewable resources.

7.Non-renewable resources: Those resources which have limited stock and can get exhausted and cannot be renewed are called non-renewable resources.

8. Human resources: The knowledge, skill, creativity, and technology make human as a resource.

9.Sustainable development: Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future use is called sustainable development.

10. The principles of sustainable development are:

1.Respect and care for all forms of life.

2. Improve the quality of human life.

3. Conserve the earth’s vitality and diversity.

4. Minimise the depletion of natural resources.

5. Change personal attitude and practices towards the environment.

6. Enable communities to care for their own environment.

11. Factors which affect the distribution of natural resources are:




~The distribution of resources is unequal because these factors differ so much over the earth.

12.Resource conservation: Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource conservation.


1. These resources can be renewed and replenished.

2. These resources are eco-friendly and do not create environmental pollution.

3.Examples: Solar & wind energy, water, forest, and wildlife.


1. These resources cannot be used again and again.

2. These resources create environmental pollution.

3.Examples: Coal, petroleum and natural gas.

Chapter.2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

1.Land use:



3. Building houses and roads.

4. Setting up of Industries.

2. The use of land is determined by two factors:

1.Physical factors       2.Human factors

Topography.              Population

Soil.                            Technology



Availability of water

3. Land can be  classified on the basis of ownership:

1.Private                   2.Community

~Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification are the major threats to the environment.

4.Conservation of land resources:

1.By reforestation

2.Land reclamation.

3.Regulated use of chemical pesticides & fertilizers.

4. Checking on overgrazing.

5.Soil: The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil.

The soil is made up of:

1.Organic matter


3.Weathered rocks.

6.Weathering: The breaking up and decay of exposed rocks by temperature changes, forest action, plants, animals and human activities.

7. Factors which lead to soil degradation are:



-Overuse of chemical pesticides - fertilizers

-Rain wash


8. Methods of soil-conservation are:


Contour plowing

Rock dams

Terrace farming


Contour plowing



~Only 27% water is fresh.

~Nearly 70% occur as ice sheets and Glaciers

~Only 1% percent of freshwater is available and fit for him use.

Use of water:

1.For agriculture


3.Generating electricity

4.Domestic use

10. Methods of water conservation are:

1. Slow the surface of runoff and replenish underground water.

2.Water harvesting

3.Use of sprinklers for irrigation

4.Drip irrigation

5. The canals should be properly lined to minimize loss of seepage water.

11. Forest can be classified as:

1.Evergreen.         2.Deciduous

12. In the Biosphere living beings are interrelated and interdependent on each other for survival this life supporting system is known as Ecosystem.

13.National Park: A natural area designed to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystem for present and the future generation.

14.Biosphere reserves: Series of protected areas linked through a global network intended to demonstrate the relationship between conservation and development.

Chapter.3: Mineral and Power Resources

1.Mineral: A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is called mineral.

2.Types of minerals:

1.Metalic:⤵               2.Non-metallic

  • Ferrous.     •Non-ferrous

Ferrous: A material which has the component of iron ore is known as ore, manganese & chromites.

Non-ferrous: A material which doesn't contain iron but may contain some other metals is known as non-ferrous.

Non-metallic:eg.Limestone, Mica, Gypsum.

3. Different methods of extracting minerals are:

Mining,⤵.   Drilling.          Quarrying

Opencast mining

Shaft mining

4.Ores: Rocks from which minerals are mixed are known as ores.

~Brazil in South America is the largest producer of high-grade iron ore.

~Chile & Peru: Copper

~South Africa: Diamond

~Australia: Bauxite

5.Power resources:

1.Those resources which have been in common use a long time1.Those resources which came to use recently up to for   limitation.
2. They are limited in nature.2. They are unlimited in nature
3. They cause the environment pollution.3. They are eco-friendly.
4.Oil, natural gas, firewood, coal, hydel power etc,4.Eg.Wind energy, solar energy Biogas, geothermal energy, nuclear energy etc.

6.Firewood: Used for cooking and heating

Coal: This is the most abundantly found fossil fuel.

Use of coal: Domestic fuel, iron & steel industries, generating thermal power.

Petroleum & its derivatives are called Black gold.

7.Natural gas: It is found with petroleum deposits & is released when crude oil is brought to the surface.

~It is found in Jaisalmer (Raj)

Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura & offshore in Mumbai.

  • Nuclear power stations in India:

Kalpakkam- Tamil Nadu

Rana Pratap Sagar-. Near Kota

Kaiga-. Karnataka

Tarapur- Maharashtra

Narora - Uttar Pradesh

8.Biogas: Organic waste such as dead plants & animals dung & kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas.

It is the best source of energy for rural areas in India.

NCERT Class 8th Geography notes Continue

Chapter.4: Agriculture

1.The farm system of an arable land:

Input⤵.                Process.⤵             Output⤵

Machinery.            ploughing.               Crops.

Seeds.                     sowing

Chemicals.             spraying

2.Physical and human farm inputs:

Physical inputs: Sunshine, rainfall, temperature, soil & slope

Human inputs: Storage, labor, machinery & chemicals.

3. Organic farming: In this farming organic manure & natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals.

~No genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.

4. There are two types of farming:

1.Subsistence farming

2.Commercial farming

1.Subsistence farming:

1. This type of farming is practiced to meet the needs of the farmers family.

2. Low levels of technology used.

3. Household laborers are used

4.Low output.

  • Two types of subsistence farming:

1.Intensive subsistence farming ⤵

Small plots of land are used.

2.Primitive subsistence farming ⤵

shifting cultivators & nomadic herders

2.Commercial farming:

1. In this, crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in the market.

2. Large capital (money) is used for it.

3. Most of the works are performed by machines.

4. It includes :

1.Commercial grain farming

2.Mixed farming

3.Plantation agriculture

1.Commercial grain farming:

Eg.Wheat and maize.

2.Mixed farming: Land used for growing food & fodder.

3.Plantation: Eg.Tea, coffee, sugar cane, cashew, rubber, cotton etc.

Rubber: Malaysia

Coffee: Brazil

Tea: India & Srilanka

5.Main crops:

~Supply as raw materials for agro-based industry

~Fibre crops: Just & cotton.

~Beverage crops: Tea & coffee.

6.Subsistence farming and Intensive farming   

Subsistence farmingIntensive farming
1.In this type of farming farmers practiced to meet the needs of himself & his family.1.In this type of farming the efforts are made to increase the production ,
2 .In this large farms are used2.In this farmers use small  plots of land
3.Household labours work3.Simple tools are used

Chapter.5: Industries

Classification of Industries: 

Raw materialSizeOwnership
-Agro-based (eg: sugar & cotton industry)-Small size (eg.handloom, diary)-Private sector (eg: Wipro)
-Marine based (eg: Fish oil & fish food industry)-Large scale (eg:  Tea & Cement industry)-Public sector (eg: BHEL, SAIL)
-Mineral based(eg: aluminium & iron & steel industry)-Co-operative industry(eg:handloom, food processing)
-Forest based(eg: furniture & paper industry)-Joint sector (eg: Oil India Limited)

2.Industries: It refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the h production of goods, extraction of minerals for the provision of services.

3. Bhopal gas disaster occurred on 3rd Dec,198 4.(Due to Methyl Isocyanate (MIC))

4. The major hubs of IT industry are :

1.Silicon Valley (USA)

2.Bangalore (India)

5.Locational factors for Industries:

1.Raw material 2.Power. 3.Capital

4.Labour. 5.Market 6.Transport

7.Communication.  8.Water. 9.Government policies 10.Land.

6. The world's major Industries are:

1.Iron & steel


3.IT Industry.

7. Steel is often called the  backbone of modern Industry because:

~Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with the mechanism of these metals.

~Minerals are mixed with steel equipment.

8. Natural fibers are obtained from wool, cotton, linen & jute.

~Man made fibers are nylon, polyester, acrylic, and rayon.

~The first mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

9. Ahmedabad referred to as the Manchester of India.

1 0. Cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai due to:

1.Favorable humid climate.

2. This region has a large production of cotton as raw material.

3.Better transport facility.

4. It is situated on the coast.

5.Easily availability of semi-skilled and skilled labor.

11.Similarities between information technology  in Bangalore and California:

1. Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutes and IT colleges whereas California is close to some of the world's most advanced, scientific and technological centers in the world.

2. Bangalore is considered dust free whereas California has a pleasant climate with an attraction and clean environment.

3. Both cities have major roads and airports.

4. Both have good access to market and skilled workforce.

Chapter.6: Human Resources

1.Life expectancy: It is the number of years that an average person can expect to live.

2.The density of population: The number of people living in per unit area.

3.Birth rate: The number of births per thousand people is called the birth rate.

4.Death rate: The number of deaths per thousand people is called the death rate.

5.Migration: It is the movement of people in and out of an area.

6.Natural growth rate: The difference between birth rate and death rate of a country is called natural growth rate.

7.Immigration: When a person enters a new country.

Emigration: When a person leaves a country.

8.Population change: It refers to change in the number of people during a specific time.

9.Causes of population change:

1.Births         2.Deaths. 3.Migration

10. Factors affecting the distribution of population are:

1.Geographical factors:

1.Topography: People always prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities.

2.Climate: People usually avoid extreme hot & cold climate.

3.Soil: Fertile soil provides suitable land for agriculture.

4.Water: People prefer to live in the areas where freshwater is available.

5.Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated.

2.Social, cultural and economic factors.

1.Social: Areas of better housing, education, and health facilities are more populated.

2.Cultural: Places with religion and cultural significance attract people.

3.Economic: Industrial areas provide employment opportunities.

11.Population composition: It refers to the structure of the population.

12.Population pyramids: It refers to the age and sex of the population.

A population pyramid shows:

1. The total population divided into various age groups.

Eg.5 to 9 years,10 to 14 years.

2. The percentage of total population subdivided into males and females into each of these groups.

NCERT Class 8th Geography notes (End)


NCERT Class 8th Geography notes

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