NCERT Notes For Class 8th History

NCERT Class 8th History Notes



NCERT Class 8th History Notes





Chapter.1: How, When and Where






1. The first map was produced by James Rennell 1782.

2.The first governor-general in India: Warren Hastings.

3.The last viceroy in India: Lord Mountbatten.

4.James Mill:(1817)

1. He was a Scottish economist and political philosopher.

2. He wrote the history of British India.

3. He divided Indian History into three periods:

Hindu--------Muslim-------British

5.Caliographists: Those who specialized in the art of beautiful writing.

6. The British preserve official documents, so that they can know about the areas which they had to administrate.

~.Some of the important official records were kept in the archives and museums.

7.Records which help in knowing the history or past are:

1.Diaries of people.

2.Accounts of Pilgrims and travelers.

3.Autobiographies of important personalities.

8. The problem with the periodization of Indian history faced by James Mill was that he divided the Indian history on the basis of communal lines which have some problems.

Chapter.2: From Trade To Territory






1. Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal emperor.

He died in 1707.

Bahadur Shah Zafar was last Mughal emperor.

2.Mercantile: A business enterprise that makes profit primarily through buying goods at a cheap price and selling them at a higher price.

3. European trading companies attracted to India due to :

1.The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India.

2. Pepper, cloves, cardamom, and cinnamon to were in great demand.

3. Competition amongst the European companies inevitably pushed the prices at which these goods could be purchased.

4. The only way by the trading companies could flourish was by eliminating rival competitors.

4. The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hooghly in 1651.

5 The areas of conflict between the Bengal Nawabs and the East India company:

1.The company tried continually to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges.

2. The officials of the company who were carrying on private trade were expected to pay duty which they refused.

3. The Nawabs of Bengal refused to grant the company concessions, denied it any right to mint coins and stopped it from expanding its fortifications.

4. The company declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were running the trade of the company and trade could only flourish if the duties were removed.

6.Battle of Plassey: 1757

~Between Robert Clive and Sirajudullah.

~Main reason for the defeat of Nawab was that the force led by Mir Jafar one of the Sirajudullah’s commander had never fought the battle.

~Clive had managed to secure his support by promising to make him Nawab after crushing Sirajudullah.

~The battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory of the company won in India.

7. The assumption of Diwani benefits the East India company got as:

1. In 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the company as the Diwan of-of the provinces of Bengal.

2. The Diwani allowed the company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.

3. This solved a major problem that the company had earlier faced.

4. The outflow of Gold from  Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani.

5. Now resources from India could finance company expenses.

8.Battle of Buxar: 1764

9. Company officials become nabobs:

1. It meant to the court that the company acquired more power and authority.

2. Each company servant began to have visions of living like Nawabs.

10.Subsidiary alliance:

1. According to the term of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.

2. They were to be protected by the company.

3. They have to pay for the subsidiary forces.

4. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment then part of their territory was taken away a penalty.

11.Tipu Sultan: The tiger Mysore.

Ruled from 1782 to 1799.

Four wars were fought with Mysore by the British.

Last battle: The battle of Seringapatam which was won by the company.

12.The doctrine of Lapse:

1. Lord Dalhousie implemented this policy.

2. It means that if an Indian ruler died without a male heir his kingdom would lapse that is, become part of company territory.

13.The composition of the company army:

1. The Mughal army mainly composed of cavalry and infantry.

2. They were given training in archery and the use of the sword.

3. It began recruitment for its own army which came to be known as the sepoy army.

4. The soldiers of the company's army had to keep pace with changing military requirements.

5. Soldiers were increasingly rejected to European- style training.

Chapter.3: Ruling the  Countryside






1.12 August 1765: Mughal emperor appointed East-India company as Diwan of Bengal.

Robert Clive accepted the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.

2. The permanent settlement was introduced by Charles Cornwallis in 1793.

3.Difference between permanent settlement and Mahalwari settlement.




















PermanentMahalwari
1. In this system revenue was fixed.1. In this system, revenue revised periodically.
2. The revenue was collected  by the zamindars.2. Revenue was collected by village Headman.
3. In this system when the production  is high then also farmers have to pay the same revenue. .3 . Revenue changes with the production

4.Problems of permanent settlement:

1. The zamindars were not investing for the importance of land.

2. The revenue was so high that zamindars found it difficult to pay.

3. Anyone who failed to pay the revenue lost his zamindari.

5. The new system devised by Thomas Munro was known as ryotwar (or ryotwari)

6. Kalamkari print was created by weavers of Andhra Pradesh.

7. A floral cotton print was designed & produced by William Morris.

8. Two main systems of Indigo cultivation were:

1.Nij

2.Ryoti.

Nij cultivation: In this system, the planters produced indigo in the land that he directly controlled.

9.Problems of Nij cultivation:

1. The planters found it difficult to expand the area under nij cultivation.

2. Indigo could be cultivated only on fertile lands which were already densely populated.

3. Planters needed large areas in compact blocks to cultivate the indigo plantation.

10.Bigha:  A unit of measuring land.

11.Ryots: Under this system, the planters forced ryots to sign a contract, an agreement (Satta)

~In this system village headman pressured to sign a contract on behalf of the ryots.

12.Champaran: Bihar

1916/1917: The movement started by Mahatma Gandhi in India against the Indigo planters.



Chapter.4: Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of Golden Age






1.Dikus: Means outsiders like British & Europeans.

2. Jhum cultivation is also known as Shifting cultivation.

3.Features of Jhum cultivation:

1. This was done on small patches of land, mostly in forests.

2. The cultivators cut the treetops to allow sunlight to reach the ground.

3. They spread the ash to improve the fertility of the soil.

4.Once the crop was ready and harvested they move to another field.

4.Fallow land: A field left uncultivated for a while so that the soil recovers fertility.

Mahua: A flower that is eaten or used to make alcohol.

5.Works & power of tribal chiefs before the arrival of British :

1. They enjoyed a certain amount of economic powers.

2. They have the right to administer to control their territories.

3. They had their own police and decided the local rulers of land & forest management.

6.Impact of the forest laws over the tribals:

1. Forest was declared as state property.

2. By this people were not allowed to move freely.

3. They were not allowed to perform Jhum cultivation, collected fruits, and hunt animals.

4. This law affected the livelihood of the tribals.

7.1906: Revolt of Songram Sangma in Assam.

8.Birsa Munda’s views towards golden age:

1. Practice cultivation to earn their living.

2. They did not kill their brethren & relatives.

3. They live honestly.

4. He wanted people once again to work on their own land.

9. The significant features of the movement started by tribals:

1. It forced the colonial government to introduce laws so that the land of the tribals could not be taken easily over by Dikus.

2. The tribal people had the capacity to protect against Injustice & express their anger against colonial rule.

10. Problems faced by the shifting cultivators were:

1. Forests were declared as state property.

2. The shifting cultivators were not allowed to do Jhum cultivation.

3. The forest law was imposed over the shifting cultivation.

4. They were forced to become permanent shelters.

Chapter.5: When People Rebel






1.1801: Subsidiary Alliance was imposed on Awadh.

2.Bahadur Shah Zafar's-wife->

Begum Zeenat Mahal

Bahadur Shah Zafar was sent to the jail in Rangoon.1858.

He died in November 1862.

1856: The company passed a new law which stated that every new person who took up employment in the company's army had to agree to serve overseas if required.

3.Mutiny: When soldiers as a group disobey their officers.

10 May 1857: Revolt started from Meerut (U.P.)

29 March 1857: Mangal Pandey was hanged to death for attacking his officers in Barrackpore.

~Revolt was started because the sepoys forced to use a new cartridge, which was suspected of being coated with the fat of cows and pigs.W which affects the religious sentiments of both Hindus and Muslims.

~The British use to protect the interests of those who converted to the Christianity.

~This new law allowed an Indian who had converted to Christianity to inherit the property of his ancestors.

 NCERT Class 8th History Notes continue

Chapter.6: Colonialism and the City






1. Delhi is situated at the left of the river Jamuna.

2. Jama Masjid is the largest mosque in India.

3.1877: Viceroy Lytton organized a Darbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India.

4.1911: King George V was crowned in England.

5.Rashtrapati Bhavan: Viceroy place is situated on Raisina (End of Aravali hills)

Kingsway: Rajpath

Buddhist Stupa: At Sanchi

Jama Masjid: Shah Jahan (Delhi)

Mansions: Havelis

Delhi became the capital of British India in 1912.

6.Difference between the design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad:.























New DelhiShahjahanabad
1. New Delhi was designed by Edward Lutyens & Herbert Bekar.1. Shahjahanabad was built  by Shah Jahan.
2. Millions of rupees were spent  on the drainage system.2. The municipal committee spent  was unwilling to spent on a good drainage system.
3.In 1936 Delhi improvement trust was set up & it built areas for wealthy Indians.3. Four walls of the city were broken down to expand the  area for growing population
4.No walls, planned spaces &decongested wide streets & roads.4. Encircled by walls, semi-planned, less space, congested lanes and roads.


Chapter.7: Weavers, Iron Smelters, and Factory Owners.



  1. Surat in Gujarat on the west coast of India was one the most important port if the Indian Ocean trade.

2. Iron and steel industry also are known as twin industry.

3. The steam engine was invented by Richard Arkwright in 1786.

4. In 1764 Spinning Jenny was invented by John Kaye.

Spinning Jenny-A machine by which a single worker could operate several spindles on to which thread was spun. When the wheel was turned all the spindles rotated.

5.Bellows-A device or equipment that can pump air.

6.Smelting: The process of obtaining a metal from rock(or soil) by heating it to a very high temperature.


Chapter.8: Civilising the NATIVE Educating the Nation


1. William Jones  was feeling for the Civilising and educating Indians:

1. He attends its glory in the past.

2. He felt that in order to understand India it is necessary to discover the sacred and legal text.

3. Only a new study of these texts could form the basis of the future development in India.

2. Madrasa was set up in Calcutta in 1781.

~To promote the study of Arabic, Persian and Islamic law.

Hindu College was established in Banaras in 1791.

3.James Mill’s views on the education:

1. The aim of education ought to be taught what was useful and practical.

2. So, Indians should be familiar with the scientific & technical advances that the west had made rather than the poetry and sacred literature of the Orient.

4.James Macaulay’s views:

1. He felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature that the world had produced.

2. It would make them aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy.

5.Main features of Macaulay's Minute:

1. The English education act of 1835 was introduced.

2. The decision was to make English as the medium of instruction for the higher education.

3. To stop the promotion of oriental institution.

4. English textbooks now began to be produced for schools.

6. Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicrafts:

1. Children had to work with their hands, learn a craft and know different things operated.

2. This would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.

7. English education has enslaved us -  Mahatma Gandhi's views:

1. Colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians.

2. It made them see western civilization as superior and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.

3. Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that would help Indians to recover their sense of dignity and self-respect.

4. Education in English crippled Indians distanced them from their own social backgrounds and made them stranger on their own land.

8.Rabindranath Tagore :

Started Shantiniketan in 1901.

~100 km away from Calcutta.

Rabindranath Tagore’s views:

1. He wanted to set up a school where a child is happy, free and desires.

2. Teachers have to be imaginative, understand the child and help the child to develop his/her curiosity.

3. According to him, the existing schools killed the natural desire of the child to be creative.

4. In his view, creative learning could be encouraged only within a natural environment.

Chapter.9: Women, Caste, and Reform






1.Sati: Womens who became widows were praised if they chose death by burning themselves on the funeral fire of their husband's whether willingly or unwillingly. This was called Sati.

2. Raja Ram Mohan Roy:(1772-1833)

Founded Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta-1830

-Sati was banned in 1829.

~He felt that changes are necessary for society and injust needed to be done away.

~He was keen to spread the knowledge of Western education in the country and bring about greater freedom and equality for women.

~He asked persuading people to give up old practices and adopt a new way of life.

3.Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar:

1. He used the ancient text to suggest that widows could remarry.

2. With his efforts law was passed in 1856 permitting widow remarriage.

4.Veerasalingam Pantulu (1848-1919):

1.Founded an association for widow remarriage.

5.Swami Dayanand Saraswati:

1. He founded Arya Samaj in1875.

6 Tarabai Shinde:

1. Published a book - Stripurushtulna. ( Comparison between man & women)

7. Pandita Ramabai: A great scholar of Sanskrit, felt that Hinduism was oppressive towards women & wrote a book about the miserable lives of  Hindu women.

8. In 1929 child marriage restraint act was passed.

The Satnami movement in central India was founded by Ghasidas.

Jyotirao Phule: Founded Satyashodhak Samaj.

He wrote a book -> Gulamgiri(Slavery)-> Related to America civil war.

In 1927 DR.BR Ambedkar started temple entry movement .

His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.

9.The Krishna Mission- Founded by Swami Vivekananda.

Chapter.10: The Changing World Of Visual Arts






1.Engraving: A picture printed on the paper from a piece of wood or metal into which the design or drawing has been cut.

2.Portrait: A picture of a person in which face and its expressions are prominent.

3.Portraiture: The art of making portraits.

4.Perspective: The way that objects appear smaller when they are further away and the parallel lines appear to meet each other at a point in the distance.

5.Scroll painting: Painting on a long roll of a paper that could be rolled up.

6.Life study: Study of human figures from living models who pose for the artists.

7.Oil painting: It was brought with the British art. It is a technique with, which Indian artists were not very familiar. Oil painting enabled artists to produce images that look real.

8. Lifesize portrait painting: Colonial portrait were life-size that looked lifelike and real. This new style of portrait also served as an ideal means of displaying the lavish lifestyle, wealth and status that the empire generated.

9.Miniature: This technique already prevailed in India.

10.Mural painting: It means a wall painting. It was a traditional style of art already prevailed in India.

11.Picturesque landscape painting:

Famous artist->Thomas Daniell

William Daniell(1785).

12.Portrait Painting-> Famous painter -> Johann Zoffany.

Came to India in 1780.

13.The third category of imperial art:

Called: History painting.

~These paintings celebrated the British, their power, their victories, their supremacy.

~One of the first of these paintings was produced by:

Francis Hayman in 1762.

~Imperial history painting sought to create a public memory of imperial triumphs, victories had to be remembered implanted in the memory of people, both in India and Britain. Only then could the British appear invincible and powerful.

14.The Art of Raja Ravi Verma:

1. He was one of the first artists who tried to create a style that was modern and national.

2. He belonged to the family of the Maharaja of Travancore.

3. He dramatized on canvas, scene after scene from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

15.Rabindranath Tagore:

1. He was one of the greatest nationalists.

2. He rejected the art of Raja Ravi Verma. As imitative and westernized and declared that such a style was unsuitable for depicting the nation's ancient myths and legend.

3. He felt that a genuine Indian style of painting had to draw inspirations from non-essential art traditions and try to capture the spiritual essence of the east.

Chapter.11: The Making of the National Movement: 1870-1947






1.Sovereign: The capacity to act independently without outside interference.

2. People were dissatisfied with the British rule in the 1870’ due to the following reasons:

1. The arms act was passed in 1878, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.

2. In 1833 the government introduced the Ilbert Bill which was withdrawn by the government due to opposition by the state.

3. In 1878 the Vernacular Act was enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government.

3. The Indian National Congress was established at Bombay in December 1885.

~The first president of the Indian National Congress was W.C.Bonnerjee.

~A.O. Hume a retired British officer played a major role in the formation of INC.

~Dadabhai Naoroji: He was the first Indian to become the member of the British Parliament.

A book was written by him: Poverty and Un-British rule.

4.The demand of Congress in the first twenty years:

1. It demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.

2. It wanted the Legislative councils to be made more representatives, given more power.

3. It demanded that Indians be placed in a high position in the government.

5.The economic impact of the First World War on India:

1. It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure.

2. Heavy taxes were imposed on Indians.

3. Rise in the practices which create great difficulties for the common people.

3. They made policies to provide profit to Businessman.

4. Rise in industries to full fill the demand of war.

5.Fast development due to industrialization.

6.Partition of Bengal -> 1905.By Viceroy Curzon.

~Kesri: A Marathi newspaper edited by Balgangadhar Tilak.

~Split of Congress:1907.

Into Moderates.       &. Radicals.

7.Policies adopted by the Radicals against British government:

1. They emphasized the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.

2. To fought for swaraj they adopted mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods.

3. They suggested revolutionary violence which is necessary to overthrow the British rule.

8. Congress reunited in December 1915.

1916- Lucknow Pact.

Signed between Congress and Muslim League.

~13 April 1919: Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.By General Dyer in Amritsar.

9. The non-cooperation movement gained momentum through 1921-1922:

1. Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.

2. Many lawyers give up their practices.

3. British titles were surrendered and legislators boycotted.

4. People lit a public bonfire of foreign clothes.

5. Mahatma Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement on 12 Feb 1922, when a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura.

10. The Congress demanded Purna Swaraj in 1929 at London session under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru.

  1. Dandi March: Started by Mahatma Gandhi on 12th March 1930 against the salt law. From Sabarmati to Dandi (240 miles) broke the salt law on 6th April 1930.

~In 1940 the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding Independent states for Muslims in the north-western and Eastern areas of the country.

12.Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan:

Known as Frontier Gandhi. Also known as Badshah Khan. Founder of Khudai Khidmatgars.

13.C.Rajagopalachari: Free India’s First Indian governor general.

14. Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the salt law because it established a monopoly on the state on the manufacture and sale of salt.

Chapter.12: India After Independence






1. Problems were faced by India after Independence:

1.The problem of refugees to find homes for them.

2.The problem of princely states almost 500, each ruled by a Nawab.

3.The problem of providing new job opportunities for the growing population.

4. To adopt a political system that would best serve the hopes and expectations of the population.

2.Constitution of India:

1. Written between December 1946 to November 1949.

2. The first meeting of constitution assembly was held in December 1946.

3. It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to write.

4.President of constitutional assembly: Dr.Rajendra Prasad.

~Chairmen of the drafting committee was: Dr.B.R Ambedkar.

~Indian constitution was adopted on 26 Jan 1950. It includes 395 articles.

3.First deputy Prime minister of India: Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.

~7th Deputy prime minister of India: L.K. Advani.

4.Three main features of the Indian constitution:

1. It adopted a universal adult franchise.

2 It guaranteed equality before the law to all citizens.

3. It offered special privileges to the poorest and most disadvanced Indians.

5.Franchise: The right to vote.

6.Powers divided by Constitution:

1.Union list: It includes subjects of national importance.eg: Tax, defense, and foreign affairs.

2.State list: It includes subjects related to state affairs.eg., education and health.

3.Concurrent list: Both the center and the state have joint responsibility.eg.forest & agriculture.

7. The official language of India is Hindi.

~First general election in India was held in 1952.

~First linguistic state of India was Andhra Pradesh. Came into being on 1st of October 1953.

~25th state of India: Goa (1987).

~Planning commission set up in 1950

Head of the planning commission us, Prime minister.

~>The role of the planning commission is to make suitable policies for economic development.

8. After Independence, a decision was made that Hindi would be the official language of India. English would be used in the court, in the services and in communication between one state to another, as some people were against of imposing Hindi on them.

NCERT Class 8th History Notes (End)


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NCERT Class 8th History Notes

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