NCERT Solutions For Class 8th Geography

NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions




NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions


Chapter.1: Resources






1. Answer the following questions.

1. Why are resources distributed unequally over the earth?

Ans-Because the factors like terrain, climate, and altitude differ so much over the earth.

2. What is resource conservation?

Ans-Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource conservation.

3. Why are human resources important?

Ans-As we have knowledge, skills, creativity, and technology. Which make our important resources.

4. What is sustainable development?

Ans-Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Which one of the following does Not make the substance a resource?

A.Utility.        B.value. c.. quantity

2. Which one the following is a human-made resource?

A.medicines to cure cancer

B.spring water

C .tropical forests

3. Complete the statement.

Biotic resources are

A.derived from living things

B.made by human beings

C.derived from non-living things

4. Differentiate between the followings.

  1. a) Potential and actual resources.

Ans-Potential resources: Those resources whose entire quantity may not be known and that are not being used at present are called potential resources.Example: Uranium in Ladakh.

Actual resources: The resources whose quantity at present time is known and that are being used at present are called actual resources.Example: Coal in the Ruhr region of Germany.

b)Ubiquitous and localized resources

Ans-Ubiquitous resources: Resources that are found everywhere in the world are called ubiquitous resources.

Localised resources: Resources that are found only at certain places are called localized resources.

Chapter.2: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources






1. Answer the following questions.

1. Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation?

Ans-Parent rock & climate.

2. Write any two reasons for land degradation today.

Ans-Growing population and increasing use of chemical pesticides.

3. Why is land considered an important resource?

Ans-Because it covers only about thirty percent of the earth's surface. And all part of this small percentage is not habitable.

4. Name any two steps that the government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

Ans-1.Reserved areas for plants & animals such as the national park, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserve has made.

2. Awareness programs such as social forestry & Vanamahotsava has started.

5. Suggest three ways to conserve water.

Ans-1.Untreated sewage should not be discharged in water bodies.

2. Water harvesting should be used.

3. For irrigation drip, irrigation & sprinkler system should use.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Which one of the following is Not a factor of soil formation?

A.time.         B.soil texture.   C.organic matter

2. Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes?

A.shelter belts.   

B.mulching

C.terrace cultivation

3. Which one of the following is Not in favor of the conservation of nature?

A.switch off the bulb when not in use

B.close the tap Immediately after using

C.dispose poly packs after shipping

3.Match the following:

Land use - productive use of land.

Humus  - organic matter deposited on topsoil

Rock dams  - prevent soil erosion

Biosphere  - narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

4.State whether the given statement true or false. If true, write the reasons.

1. Ganga-Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.

True. Because these plains are most suitable for human occupation as they have fertile land.

2. Water availability per person in India  is declining

True. Due to the growing population.

3. Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement are called intercropping. False.

4. Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem. False.

NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions

Chapter.3: Mineral and Power Resources






1. Answer the following questions.

1. Name any three common minerals used by you every day.

Ans- 1.Aluminum foil.(aluminum)

2.Salt in food.

3.Graphite in pencil.

2. What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?

Ans-Rocks from which minerals are known as ore. Ores of metallic minerals are generally located in Brazil in South Africa.

3. Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.

Ans-1.Jaisalmer (Raj)

2.Krishna Godavari delta.

4.Which sources of energy would you suggest for

a)rural areas-Biogas

  1. b) coastal areas - Tidal energy.

c)arid regions - Wind & solar energy.

5. Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.

Ans- 1.Using solar lights.

2.Using CFLs.

3. Switching off electric devices when they are not in use.

4.Using the pressure cooker to cook food.

5. Soaking dal for some time before cooking.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Which one of the following is Not a characteristic of minerals?

A. They are created by natural processes.

B. They have a definite chemical composition.

C. They are inexhaustible.

D. Their distribution is uneven.

2. Which one of the following is Not a producer of mica?

A.Jharkhand.            C.Rajasthan

C.Karnataka.    D.Andhra Pradesh

3. Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

A.Bolivia.               B.Chile

C.Ghana.                 D.Zimbabwe

4.Which of the following practices will Not conserve LPG in your kitchen.

A. Soaking the dal for some time before cooking.

B. Cooking food in a pressure cooker.

C.Keeping the vegetables chopped before lightning the gas for cooking.

D. Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.

3. Give reasons.

1. Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.

Ans- 1.Because it causes deforestation. Due to deforestation, many environmental problems can occur.

2. Tribal people may be displaced.

3. People may need to shift to another place.

4. Natural habitat may be destroyed.

2. Most Industries are concentrated around coal mines.

Ans- Coal is used as a source of energy and power.Due to which Industries are concentrated around coal mines.

3. Petroleum is referred to as “Black gold".

Ans- Because petroleum and its derivatives are very valuable due to this it is called Black gold.

4. Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.

Ans- 1. It causes air pollution.

2. It also causes noise pollution.

3. It can damage biodiversity.

4. Distinguish between the followings.

1.Conventional and nonconversational sources of energy.

Ans-
ConventionalNon-conventional
1.Those resources which have been in common use a long time1.Those resources which came to use recently up to for limitation.
2. They are limited in nature.2. They are unlimited in nature
3. They cause the environment pollution.3. They are eco-friendly.
4.Oil, natural gas, firewood, coal, hydel power etc,4.Eg.Wind energy, solar energy Biogas, geothermal energy, nuclear energy etc.

2.Biogas and natural gas.

Ans-
BiogasNatural gas
1.It obtained in natural form.1. It obtained from organic waste.
2. It does not produce organic manure.2.It produces a huge amount of organic manure.

3.Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals.

Ans-
FerrousNon-ferrous
1.These minerals contain  iron.1.These minerals don't contain  iron.
2.Examples: manganese & chromites.2.Examples: graphite & salt.



4.Metallic and nonmetallic minerals.

Ans-

MetallicNonmetallic
1.These minerals contain  iron.1.These minerals don't contain iron.
2. These are hard.2.These are not hard.
3.These are good conductors3.These are bad conductors  of heat & electricity.
4. Examples: iron ore, bauxite.4.Examples: mica, gypsum.



NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions Continue

Chapter.4: Agriculture






1. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is agriculture?

Ans-The science & art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops & rearing livestock is called agriculture.It is also call farming.

 2. Name the factors influencing agriculture?

Ans- Soil & Climate.

3. What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Ans-Clearing a plot of land by falling & burning of trees. The ash is then mixed with the soil & cultivation is done. Once the cultivation is done on a land then the other is taken. This is called shifting cultivation.

Disadvantages: Deforestation,soil erosion,increasing carbon dioxide etc.

4. What is plantation agriculture?

Ans- This is a type of commercial farming where single crops such as cotton, sugarcane, tea etc.. are grown. Also, a large amount of labor & money is required.

5. Name the fiber crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Ans-Jute & cotton

For jute: High temperature, heavy rainfall & humid climate required.

For cotton: High temperature, light rainfall, frost-free days & bright sunshine required.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Horticulture means

A.growing of fruits & vegetables

B.primitive farming

C.growing of wheat

2. Golden fibers refer to

A.tea.          B.cotton. C.jute

3.Leading producers of coffee

A.Brazil.        B.India.        C.Russia

3. Give reasons.

1. In India agriculture is a primitive activity.

Ans-Two third of India's population is still dependent on agriculture.

2. Different crops are grown in different regions

Ans-Due to variations in climate conditions & soil.

4. Distinguish between the followings.

1.Primary activities and tertiary activities

Ans-Primary activities include all those which are connected with the extraction & production of natural resources. Examples: Agriculture, fishing etc.

Tertiary activities provide support to the primary & secondary activities through transport, trade, banking, insurance, advertising etc.

2.Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Ans-
Subsistence farmingIntensive farming
1.In this type of farming farmers practiced to meet the needs of himself & his family.1.In this type of farming the efforts are made to increase the production ,
2 .In this large farms are used2.In this farmers use small plots of land
3.Household labours work3.Simple tools are used

Chapter.5: Industries






1. Answer the following questions.

1. What is meant by term industry?

Ans-It refers to an economic activity that is concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals for the provision of services

2. Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

Ans-1.Raw materials.

2.Power.

3.Land.

4.Capital

5.Market.

6.Transport.

7.Communication

8.Labour

9.Water

10.Government policies

3. Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern I and why?

Ans-Steel is often called the backbone of modern Industry because:

~Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with the mechanism of these metals.

~Minerals are mixed with steel equipment.

4. Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai?

Ans-Cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai due to:

1.Favorable humid climate.

2. This region has a large production of cotton as raw material.

3.Better transport facility.

4. It is situated on the coast.

5.Easily availability of semi-skilled and skilled labor.

5. What are similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California?

Ans-Similarities between information technology in Bangalore and California:

1. Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutes and IT colleges whereas California is close to some of the world's most advanced, scientific and technological centers in the world.

2. Bangalore is considered dust free whereas California has a pleasant climate with an attraction and clean environment.

3. Both cities have major roads and airports.

4. Both have good access to market and skilled workforce.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Silicon Valley is located in

A.Bengaluru.               B.California

C.Ahmedabad

2. Which one of the following Industries is known as a sunrise industry?

A.Iron and steel industry

B.Cotton textile

C.Information technology

3. Which one of the following is a natural fiber?

A.nylon.        B.jute.      C.acrylic

3.Distinguish between the followings

1.Agro-based and mineral based industry

Ans-Agro based: It means it is an agriculture-based industry, where raw materials are obtained through agriculture. Examples: Sugar & cotton industry.

Mineral based: In this industry, mineral ores are used as raw material to manufacture other products such as iron, steel etc.

Examples: Aluminum, iron & steel industry.

2.Public sector and joint sector Industry.

Ans-Public sector: Public sector Industries are owned and operated by the government. Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Joint sector: Joint sector industries are owned & operated by the state and individuals or group of individuals. Examples: Maruti Udhyog Limited, Oil India Limited.

4. Give two examples of the following in space provided:

1.Raw materials: sugarcane    and cotton

2.End products: notebooks           and  sugar

3.Tertiary Activities: banking and marketing.

4.Agro-based Industries: sugar industry and the cotton industry.

5.Cottage Industries: handloom and handicrafts.

6.Co-operatives: dairy and. food processing.

Chapter.6: Human Resources






1. Answer the following questions.

1. Why are people considered a resource?

Ans- People are considered as a resource because they are the ultimate resource.T heir education, knowledge, inventions, and creativity to make a substance resource make them a resource.

2. What are the causes of the uneven distribution of the population in the world?

Ans-Factors affecting the distribution of population are:

1.Geographical factors:

1.Topography: People always prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities.

2.Climate: People usually avoid extreme hot & cold climate.

3.Soil: Fertile soil provides suitable land for agriculture.

4.Water: People prefer to live in the areas where freshwater is available.

5.Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated.

2.Social, cultural and economic factors.

1.Social: Areas of better housing, education, and health facilities are more populated.

2.Cultural: Places with religion and cultural significance attract people.

3.Economic: Industrial areas provide employment opportunities.

3. The world population has grown rapidly. Why?

Ans-Better availability of food, health facilities and better education and knowledge contributed to the rapid growth of world population. As a result, the birth has increased and the death rate decreased. And led to the rapid growth of population.

4. Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change?

Ans-Two factors influencing population change are

1.Birth rate.        2.Death rate.

1.Birth rate: The number of births per thousand people is called the birth rate.

2.Death rate: The number of deaths per thousand people is called the death rate.

When the birth rate is higher than the death rate than the population increases.Whereas when the death rate is higher than the birth rate then the population decreases.

5. What is meant by population composition?

Ans- 1. It refers to the structure of the population.

2. The composition of the population helps us to know:

1.A number of males & females.

2.Which age group they belong.

3.Their occupations.

4.How they are educated.

5.Their income & health conditions.

6. What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding the population of a country?

Ans-Population pyramids: It refers to the age and sex of population.

A population pyramid shows:

1. The total population divided into various age groups.

Eg.5 to 9 years,10 to 14 years.

2. The percentage of total population subdivided into males and females into each of these groups.

2. Tick the correct answer.

1. Which does the term population distribution refer to?

A. How the population in a specified area changes over time?

B.The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.

C.The way in which people are spread across a given area.

2. Which are the three main factors that cause population change?

A.Births, deaths, and marriage

B.Births, deaths, and migration

C.Births, deaths and life expectancy

3. In 1999, the world population reached

A.1 billion.        B.3 billion. C.6 billion

4. What is a population pyramid?

A.A graphical representation of the age, sex composition of a population.

B.When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings

C. The pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

3.C complete the sentences below using some of the following words.

sparsely, favorable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely

When people are attracted to an area it becomes densely populated.

Factors that influence this include favorable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions (End)

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NCERT Class 8th Geography Solutions

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