NCERT Solutions For Class 8th History

NCERT Class 8th  History Solutions




NCERT Class 8th History Solutions


Chapter.1: How, When and Where






1.True or False.

1. James Mill divided Indian history into three periods -Hindu, Muslim, Christian. False

2. Official documents help us understand what the people of the country think. False

3. The British thought surveys were important for effective administration. True

2. What is the problem with the periodization of Indian history that James Mill offers?

Ans-The problem with the periodization of Indian history faced by James Mill was that he divided the Indian history on the basis of communal lines which have some problems.

3. Why did the British preserve official documents?

Ans-The British preserve official documents, so that they can know about the areas which they had to administrate.

~.Some of the important official records were kept in the archives and museums.

Chapter.2: From Trade To Territory






1.Match the following:

Diwani: right to collect land revenue

“Tiger of Mysore":Tipu sultan

faujdari adalat: criminal court

Rani Channamma: led an anti-British movement in Kitoor

sipahi: sepoy

2. Fill in the blanks:

1.The British conquest Bengal with the battle of Plassey

2. Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rules of Mysore

3. Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of Lapse

4. Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the South-western part of India.

3.State whether true or false:

1. The Mughal Empire became stronger in the eighteenth century. False.

2. The English East India company was the only European company that traded in India. False

3. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab. True

4. The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered. False

4. What attracted European trading companies to India?

Ans-1.The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India.

2. Pepper, cloves, cardamom, and cinnamon to were in great demand.

3. Competition amongst the European companies inevitably pushed the prices at which these goods could be purchased.

4. The only way by the trading companies could flourish was by eliminating rival competitors.

5. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India company?

Ans-1.The company tried continually to press for more concessions and manipulate existing privileges.

2. The officials of the company who were carrying on private trade were expected to pay duty which they refused.

3. The Nawabs of Bengal refused to grant the company concessions, denied it any right to mint coins and stopped it from expanding its fortifications.

4. The company declared that the unjust demands of the local officials were running the trade of the company and trade could only flourish if the duties were removed.

6. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India company?

Ans-1.In 1765 the Mughal emperor appointed the company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.

2. The Diwani allowed the company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.

3. This solved a major problem that the company had earlier faced.

4. The outflow of Gold from  Britain slowed after the Battle of Plassey and entirely stopped after the assumption of Diwani.

5. Now resources from India could finance company expenses.

7. Explain the system of the subsidiary alliance?

Ans-1.According to the term of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.

2. They were to be protected by the company.

3. They have to pay for the subsidiary forces.

4. If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment then part of their territory was taken away as a penalty.

8. In what way was the administration of the company different from that of Indian rulers?

Ans-1.British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called presidencies.

2. Each was ruled by a governor.T he Supreme head of the administration was the governor- general.

3. From 1722 a new system of justice was established. Each district was to have two courts - a criminal court (faujdari Adalat) and a civil court (Diwani Adalat)

9. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the company's army?

Ans-1.The Mughal army mainly composed of cavalry and infantry.

2. They were given training in archery and the use of the sword.

3. It began recruitment for its own army which came to be known as the sepoy army.

4. The soldiers of the company's army had to keep Pace with changing military requirements.

5. Soldiers were increasingly rejected to European- style training.

Chapter.3: Ruling the Countryside






1.Match the following:

ryot: peasant

Mahal: village

nij: cultivation of planter’s own land

ryoti: cultivation on ryot’s lands

2. Fill in the blanks:

1. Growers of woad in Europe saw Indigo as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.

2. The demand for indigo increased in late-eighteenth-century Britain because of Industrialization

3. The International demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of Synthetic Dyes

4. The Champaran movement was against Indigo planters

3. Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.

Ans-1.In this system, revenue was fixed permanently.

2. The revenue was collected by zamindars.

3. In this system when the production is high then also farmers have to pay the same revenue.

4. How was the mahalwari system different from the permanent settlement?

Ans-



















PermanentMahalwari
1. In this system revenue was fixed.1. In this system, revenue revised periodically.
2. The revenue was collected by the zamindars.2. Revenue was collected by village Headman.
3. In this system when the production is high then also farmers have to pay the same revenue. .3 . Revenue changes with the production

5. Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.

Ans-1.Driven by the desire to increase the income from land revenue officials fixed to high revenue demand.

2. Optimistic officials had imagined that the new system would transform the peasants into rich enterprising farmers. But this did not happen.

6. Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?

Ans-1.Indigo was cultivated on the best soil in which peasants preferred to cultivate rice.

2. Indigo moreover had deep roots & it exhausted the soil rapidly.

3. After an Indigo harvest, the land could not be sown with rice.

4. The price they got for the indigo they produced was very slow and the cycle of loans never ended.

7. What were the circumstances which lead to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?

Ans-1.In March 1859 thousands of ryots in Bengal refused to grow Indigo.

2. Those who worked for the planters were socially boycotted and the gomasthas - agents of planters-who came to collect rent were beaten up. Ryots swore they would no longer take advances to so indigo nor be bullied by the planters ‘ lathiyals.

3. Worried by the rebellion no, the government brought in the military to protect the planters from assault, and set up the indigo commission to inquire into the system of indigo production.T he commission held the planters guilty & criticised them for the coercive methods they used with indigo cultivators.

4. It declared that indigo production was not profitable for ryots.

5. The commission asked the ryots to fulfill their existing contracts but also told them that they could refuse to produce indigo in future.

Chapter.4: Tribals, Dikus and the vision of Golden Age






1. Fill in the blanks:

1. The British described the tribal people as Shifting cultivators /wild and slaves.

2. The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as Broadcasting of seeds.

3. The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.

4. Tribals went to work in the Tea plantations of Assam and the Coal mines in Bihar.

2.State whether true or false :

1. Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds.

2. Cocoons were bought from Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.

3. Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.

4. The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.

3. What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?

Ans-1.Forests were declared as state property.

2. The shifting cultivators were not allowed to do Jhum cultivation.

3. The forest law was imposed over the shifting cultivation.

4. They were forced to become permanent shelters.

4. How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?

Ans-1.They lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by the British officials in India.

2. They also had to pay tribute to the British.

3. They lost the authority they had earlier enjoyed amongst their people.

4. They were unable to pay their traditional functions.

5. What was Birsa's vision of a Golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?

Ans-1.Practice cultivation to earn their living.

2. They did not kill their brethren & relatives.

3. They live honestly.

4. He wanted people once again to work on their own land.

NCERT Class 8th  History Solutions

Chapter.5: When People Rebel






1. What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?

Ans- Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi wanted the company to recognize her adopted son as the heir to the kingdom after the death  of her husband

2. What did the British do to protect the interest of those who converted to Christianity?

Ans-An Indian who had converted to Christianity can inherit the property of his ancestors.

3. What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?

Ans-The new cartridges were suspected of being coated with the fat of cows and pigs.

4. How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?

Ans-The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried in court and sentenced to life imprisonment.H e and his wife Begum Zinat Mahal were sent to prison in Rangoon in October 1858. Bahadur Shah Zafar died in Rangoon jail in November 1862.

5. What could be the reasons for the confidence of British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?

Ans-1.The traditional rulers failed to develop independent leadership.

2. They also failed to have, social, political and economic aims of their own.

3. They fought among themselves and could not present a united front against the foreign rule.

4. A section of people practiced inhuman social practices. They do not rise in revolt against the Britishers.

7. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?

Ans-1.They provided inheritance rights to the landowners.

2. They were exempted from taxes.

3. They were rewarded.

4. They could be safe and their rights and claims would not be denied to them.

8. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?

Ans-The British Parliament passed a new act in 1858 and transferred the powers of the East India company to the British crown.

2. The governor-general of India was given the title of Viceroy, that is a personal representative of the ccrown.

3.All chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future. They were allowed to pass on their kingdoms to their heirs, including adopted sons.

4. The proportion of Indian soldiers in the army would be reduced and the number of European soldiers would be increased.

5. The British decided to respect to the customary religions and social practices of people in India.

6. Policies were made to protect landlords and zamindars & give them security of rights over their lands.

Chapter.6: Colonialism and the City






1.State whether true or false:

1. In the western world, modern cities grew with industrialization. True

2. Surat and Machilipatnam developed in the nineteenth century. False

3. In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities. False

4. After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. True

5. More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi. False

2. Fill in the blanks:

1. The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the Tomb.

2. The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker.

3. The British saw overcrowded spaces as Unhygienic.

4. In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore gate improvement scheme was devised.

3. Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.

Ans-



















New DelhiShahjahanabad
1. New Delhi was designed by Edward Lutyens & Herbert Bekar.1. Shahjahanabad was built by Shah Jahan.
2. Millions of rupees were spent on the drainage system.2. The municipal committee spent was unwilling to spent on a good drainage system.
3.In 1936 Delhi improvement trust was set up & it built areas for wealthy Indians.3. Four walls of the city were broken down to expand the area for growing population



4. Who lived in the white areas in cities such as Madaras?

Ans-Britishers were lived in white areas.

5. What is meant by de-escalation?

Ans-Local rulers were defeated by the Britishers and new centers of administration emerged . This process is often described as de-urbanisation.

6. Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

Ans-•During the revolt , the Britishers had realized that the Mughal emperor was still important to people & they saw him as their leader.

  • It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in the city the Mughal Emperors had earlier ruled & the place which had turned into a rebel stronghold.

7. How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?

Ans-1.The British wanted Delhi to forget it's Mughal past .

2. The areas around the Fort was completely cleared at gardens, pavilions and mosques.

a)Mosque in  particular were either destroyed or put to other use.

b)Zinat-al-Masjid was converted into a bakery.

C)No leadership was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years .

d)One-third of the city was demolished.

e)Canals were filled up.

3. The Britishers now began living in the sprawling civil lines area that came up in the north away from the Indians in the walled city.

8. How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?

Ans-1. Population of Delhi swelled , the kinds of jobs people did changed & the culture of the city became different.

2. Rioting began and thousands of people in Delhi were killed.

3. Muslims left homes for Pakistan, their place was taken by large numbers of Sikhs & Hindus refugees from Pakistan.

4. Shops and stalls were set up to cater to the demands of the migrants; schools and colleges were opened.

5. The large migration from Punjab changed social milieu of Delhi

Chapter.7: Weavers, Iron Smelters, And Factory Owners






1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?

Ans-Fine cotton cloth from India.

2. What is Jamdani?

Ans-Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the look, typically in grey & white.

3. What is bandanna?

Ans-Word bandanna now refers to any brightly colored & printed scarves for the neck or head.

4. Who are the Agaria?

Ans-Group of men & women carrying baskets loads of iron ore is known as Agaria.

5. Fill in the blanks:

1. The word chintz comes from the word chintz.

2. Tipu’s sword was made of wootz steel.

3. India’s textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.

6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?

Ans-There were other clothes in the order book that were noted by their place of origin: Kasimbazar, Patna, Calcutta, Orissa, Charpoore. The widespread use of such words shows how popular textiles had to become in different parts of the world.

7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early Eighteenth century?

Ans-Wood & silk producers began protesting against the import of Indian cotton textiles. In 1720, the British government enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles -chintz- in England. Interestingly, this act was known as the Calico Act.

8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?

Ans-1.Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets.

2. Exporting textiles to England also became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain.

9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?

Ans-1.Iron smelting was in decline.

1. One reason was the new forest laws by which colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests.

2. Many gave up their craft & looked for other means of livelihood.

3. In some areas, the Government did grant access to the forest. But the iron Smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest department for every furnace they used.

4. By the late nineteenth century, iron and steel were being imported from Britain.

10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?

Ans-1.It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain.

2. Governments supported Industrialization by imposing heavy duties on imports.

3. The colonial government in India usually refused such protection to local industries.

11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the first world war?

Ans-1.The first world war broke out.S teel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of war in Europe.

2. Imports of British steel into three India declined dramatically & the Indian railways turned to TISCO for supplies of rails.

3. As the war dragged on for several years TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels for war.

4. By 1919 the colonial government was buying 90% of the steep manufactured by TISCO.

5. Over time TISCO became the biggest steel industry within the British empire.

NCERT Class 8th History Solutions Continue

Chapter.8: Civilising The Natives, Educating The Nation







  1. Match the following:

William Jones - respect for the ancient culture

Rabindranath Tagore - learning in a natural environment

Thomas Macaulay -  promotion of English education

Mahatma Gandhi -  critical of English education

Pathshalas - gurus

3.State whether true or false :

1. James Mill was a serve critic if the Orientalists.

2. The 1854 Despatch on education was in favor of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.

3. Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion and of literacy was the most important aim of education.

4. Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.

3. Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy, and law?

Ans-1.He felt for Civilising and educating Indians.

2. He felt that in order to understand India it is necessary to discover the sacred and legal text.

3. Only a new study of these texts could form the basis of the future development in India.

4. Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?

Ans-James Mill’s views for the education:

1. The aim of education ought to be to taught what was useful and practical.

2. So, Indians should be familiar with the scientific & technical advances that the west had made rather than the poetry and sacred literature of the Orient.

James Macaulay’s views:

1. He felt that knowledge of English would allow Indians to read some of the finest literature that the world had produced.

2. It would make them aware of the developments in Western science and philosophy.

5. Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?

Ans-1.Children had to work with their hands, learn a craft and know different things operated.

2. This would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.

6. Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education that enslaved Indians?

Ans-1.Colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians.

2. It made them see western civilization as superior and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture.

3. Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that would help Indians to recover their sense of dignity and self-respect.

4. Education in English crippled Indians distanced them from their own social backgrounds and made them stranger on their own land.

Chapter.9: Women, Caste, And Reform






1. What Social ideas did the following people support

Rammohan Roy - Anti Sati Act 1829, upliftment of women.

Dayanand Saraswati - Against idol worship, widow remarriage, girl education

Veeresalingam Pantulu - Widow remarriage.

Jyotirao Phule - Against caste Injustice, caste discrimination

Pandita Ramabai - Widow homes, economic Independence of women, widow remarriage

Periyar - Self-respect movement, caste inequality

Mumtaz Ali  - Reinterpreted the Quran for women education.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar - Women education, widow remarriage Act 1856.

2.State whether true or false:

1. When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rulers regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc. True

2. Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices. False

3. Reformers got full support from all sections of people of the country. False

4. The child marriage restraint act was passed in 1829. False

3. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new law?

Ans-1.The knowledge that the reformers git from reading ancient texts gave them confidence and moral support that they were on the right path to support and promote new law.

2. They could convince the people that social evils like discrimination, child marriage, sati etc. were not approved by the ancient texts and were only spread to bring about chaos in the city.

4. What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?

Ans-1.They feared that girls would stop doing their domestic chores.

2. They feared that schools would take girls away from homely instincts.

3. They felt girls needed to stay away from public spaces as this would have a corrupting influence on them.

5. Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Ans-1.Christian missionaries were attacked by many people in the country because they suspected that they were involved in forced conversion using money power. People felt that poor and tribal people were being converted from Hinduism to Christianity forcefully.

2. Some people must have supported them due to the fact that through the conversion the poor and the tribal people might improve their economic condition.

6. In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes were regarded as low?

Ans-1.The poor left their villages looking for job opportunities in the factories or municipalities in a city.

2. They thought that this was an opportunity to get away from the hold of the upper caste landowners.

3. They took up different kinds of jobs like digging drains, laying roads, cleaning the cities, constructing buildings, cleaning the sewage, , laying bricks etc.

4. Some of them went to work in plantations in Assam, Indonesia, Mauritius, and Trinidad.

5. Some joined the army.

6. Numerous Mahar people, found jobs in Mahar regiment.

7. How did Jyotirao the reformers justify their criticism of caste inequality in society?

Ans-1.He attacked the Brahmans’ claim of superiority by arguing that Aryans were foreigners who came from outside the subcontinent.

2. They came, defeated and suppressed the true children of the country.

3. According to Phul , the land and power belonged to the so-called low caste and the upper caste had no right to it.

4. Phule said that there existed a Golden age when warrior-peasants tilled the land and ruled the Maratha countryside in fair and just ways.

5. He said that the shudras and ati-Shudras should unite to challenge caste discrimination.

6. The Satyashodhak Samaj founded by Phule propagated caste equality.

8. How did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?

Ans-In 1873, Phule wrote Gulamgiri which means slavery.

1. Almost 10 years ago the American civil war was fought which resulted in the abolition of the slavery in America.

2. Phule wanted to establish a link between the conditions of the lower caste in India and the black slaves in America.

3. Thus, he dedicated his book to all those Americans who fought to abolish slavery.

9. What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?

Ans-B.R. Ambedkar led three movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935, to break all caste barriers and to make everyone realize the demerits of caste prejudices within the society.

Chapter.10: The Changing World of Visual Arts






1. Fill in the blanks:

1.The art form which observed carefully and tried to capture exactly what the eye saw is called the idea of realism.

2.The style of painting which showed Indian landscape as a quaint, unexplored land is called the picturesque.

3. A painting which showed the social lives of Europeans in India are called evocative picturesque.

4. A painting which depicted scenes from British imperial history and their victories are called evocative picturesque landscape.

2.Point out which of the following were brought in with British art:

1.Oil painting.

2.miniatures.

3.life-size portrait painting✓

4.use of perspective✓

5.mural art

4. Why did the scroll painters and potters come to Kalighat? Why did they begin to paint new themes?

Ans-1.The scroll painters came to Kalight because at this time the city was expanding the commercial and administrative center.

2. They began to paint new themes because the tastes, values, social norms and customers were rapidly changing after 1945s. They quickly responded to the world around and produced new themes.

5. Why can we think of Raja Ravi Verma’s painting as national?

Ans-The Art of Raja Ravi Verma:

1. He was one of the first artist who tried to create a style that was modern and national.

2. He belonged to the family of the Maharaja of Travancore.

3. He dramatized on canvas, scene after scene from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

6. In what way did the British history paintings in India reflect the attitudes of imperial conquerors?

Ans-These paintings did not depict any act of aggression or conquest, but the dramatization of the glory of British triumph was done in them.

7. Why do you think some artists wanted to develop a national style of art?

Ans-1.They felt that a genuine Indian style of painting was necessary to draw inspirations from non-western art traditions and try to capture the spiritual essence of the east.

2. They were influenced by Rajput miniatures, the ancient art of mural paintings in the Ajanta caves.

3. After the 1920s a new generation of artists began to break away from the style of Abindranath Tagore, due to spiritual, sentimental and inspirational words.

8. Why did some artists produce cheap popular prints? What influence would such prints have had on the minds of people who looked at them?

Ans-Often middle-class Indian artists produced popular prints with the help of new printing press. These prints were produced in large numbers at the cheap rate, then even poor could buy them.

These prints had a national message and related a nationalistic favor.

NCERT Class 8th Solutions History

Chapter.11: The Making Of The National Movement:1870s-1947






1. Why were people dissatisfied with the British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?

Ans-Because:

1. In 1878, the Arms act was passed, disallowing Indians from possessing arms.

2. In 1833 the government introduced the Ilbert Bill which was withdrawn by the government due to opposition by the state.

3. In 1878 the Vernacular Act was enacted in an effort to silence those who were critical of the government.

2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?

Ans-1.It demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.

2. It wanted the Legislative councils to be made more representatives, given more power.

3. It demanded that Indians be placed in a high position in the government.

3. What economic impact did the First world war have on India?

Ans -1. It led to a huge rise in the defense expenditure.

2. Heavy taxes were imposed on Indians.

3. Rise in the practices which created great difficulties for the common people.

3. They made policies to provide profit to Businessman.

4. Rise in industries to full fill the demand of war.

5.Fast development due to industrialization.

4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?

Ans-In 1940 the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding Independent states for Muslims in the north-western and Eastern areas of the country.

5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?

Ans-Congress was moderate in the first twenty years in its objectives and methods.

1. It demanded a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.

2. It wanted the Legislative councils to be made more representatives, given more power.

3. It demanded that Indians be placed in a high position in the government.

6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?

Ans-1.They emphasized the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.

2. To fought for swaraj they adopted mass mobilization and boycott of British institutions and goods.

3. They suggested revolutionary violence which is necessary to cover the British rule.

7. Discuss the various forms that that Non-cooperation movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?

Ans-1.Thousands of students left government controlled schools and colleges.

2. Many lawyers give up their practices.

3. British titles were surrendered and legislators boycotted.

4. People lit a public bonfire of foreign clothes.

5. Mahatma Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement on 12 Feb 1922, when a crowd of peasants set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura

8. Why did Gandhi choose to break the salt law?

Ans-Mahatma Gandhi decided to break the salt law because it established a monopoly on the state on the manufacture and sale of salt.

9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.

Ans-Elections to the provinces were again held in 1946.

The Congress did well in the general constituencies but the League's success in the seats reserved for Muslims was spectacular. It persisted with its demand for Pakistan. In March 1946 the British cabinet sent a three-member mission to Delhi to examine the demand and suggest a suitable political framework for a free India

Chapter.12: India After Independence






1. Name three problems that the newly independent India faced:

Ans-1. The problem of refugees to find homes for them.

2. The problem of princely states almost 500, each ruled by a Nawab.

3.A problem with providing new job opportunities for the growing population.

2. What was the role of the planning commission?

Ans-The role the planning commission was to help, design and execute suitable policies for economic development.

3. Fill in the blanks:

1. Subjects that were placed on the Union list were taxes, defense, and foreign affairs.

2. Subjects on the Concurrent List were forests and agriculture.

3. Economic planning by which both the state and private sector played a role in development was called a mixed economy model.

4. The death of Potti Sriramulu sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give into the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.

4.State whether true or false:

1. At Independence, the majority of the Indians lived in villages. True

2. The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party. False.

3. In the first National election, only men were allowed to vote. False.

4. The second five-year plan focused on the development of heavy industry. True.

5. What did Dr.Ambedkar mean when he said: “In politics, we will equality, and in social and economic life we will have inequality”?

Ans-In politics we will be recognizing the principle of one man one vote value. In our social & economic life, we shall by reason of our social and economic structure continue to deny the principle of one man one value.

6. After Independence, why was there a reluctant to divide the country into linguistic lines?

Ans-1.As a result of the Partition of India, more than a million people had been killed between Hindus and Muslims.

2. And now both Prime minister Nehru and deputy Prime minister Vallabh Bhai Patel were against of linguistic states.

So, there was a reluctant to divide the country into linguistic lines.

7. Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.

Ans-After Independence a decision was made that Hindi would be the official language of India. English would be used in the court, in the services and in communication between one state to another, as some people were against of imposing Hindi on them.

8. How was the economic development of India visualized in the early decades after Independence?

Ans-1.In 1950, the government set up a planning commission to help, design and execute suitable policies for economic development.

2. There was a broad agreement on a mixed economy.

3. In 1956, the second five years plan was formulated. This strongly focused on the development of heavy industries such as steel.

9. Who was Mira Behn? Find out more about her life and her ideas.

Ans-Mira Behn was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi. She was greatly inspired by the ideas, philosophy & ways of working with Mahatma Gandhi. She worked against caste discrimination, untouchability and in favor of women equality & rights. She emphasized industries and education.

NCERT Class 8th History Solutions (End)

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NCERT Class 8th History Solutions

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